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COMM103: Introduction to Mass Media

Unit 4: Newspapers   In this unit, you will learn about the distinct influence newspapers have had on human history due to their association with the dissemination of news.  Although people get more of their news from the Internet than from printed newspapers, throughout most of history, newspapers were the primary source of news for most societies after word of mouth.  As a result of this industry’s long-standing influence on what people learned about the world around them, many media industries that followed newspapers adopted the characteristics of news writing and presentation.  To this day, journalism and newspapers remain closely connected in the minds of many media consumers, although new forms, activities, and styles of journalism also spread quickly once printing presses and other technology increased the rate and decreased the cost of newspaper production.  However, as you work through this unit, keep one important feature in mind about newspapers: they require literacy.  As a result, the generalizations about the influence of newspapers on culture must be considered with a caveat because they are limited to those cultures who could read.  Do not forget, as you read about the history and impact of newspapers, that news and information were being disseminated across cultures through other means as well and that those means were equally important in the history of mass media.

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4.2: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.3: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.4: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.5: 0.5 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Define, break into categories (when possible), and provide examples of the following with respect to the newspaper industry: penny press, sensationalism, the inverted pyramid, and the underground press. - Draw distinctions among yellow journalism, watchdog journalism, literary journalism, interpretive journalism, advocacy journalism, precision journalism, conflict journalism, and consensus journalism - Identify significant social, political, economic, and technological milestones in the history of newspapers and describe their impact on the industry. - Describe cultural traits that influenced the development of newspapers and also when, why, and how newspapers played a role in cultural developments. - Contrast objective journalism with story-driven journalism. - Recognize the most popular forms, formats, and/or products of the newspaper industry in terms of their economic success and social impact. - Evaluate the positive and negative ways in which online journalism is influencing traditional journalism and the newspaper industry in general.

4.1 History of Newspapers   - Reading: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication: “Chapter 4, Section 1: History of Newspapers” Link: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication“Chapter 4, Section 1: History of Newspapers” (PDF)

 Instructions: Focus on understanding the terms used in the readings
and how they drive the review of this unit.  In addition, keep the
outcomes listed above in mind as you read so that you are not only
absorbing facts but also the examples, relationships, and theories
that will enable you to use the information you encounter in the
manner the outcomes describe.  Note that this reading will also
cover the material you need to know for subunits 4.1.1–4.1.5.  

 Reading these sections should take approximately 15 minutes. 
Completing the exercises associated with these readings may require
an additional 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under
a [Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/) without
attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.
  • Lecture: Utah Valley State College: Phil Gordon’s COMM 1500: Introduction to Mass Communication: “Episode 04 – Newspapers: An Independent Press, Part 1, and Episode 05—Newspapers: An Independent Press, Part 2” Link: Utah Valley State College: Phil Gordon’s COMM 1500: Introduction to Mass Communication“Episode 04 – Newspapers: An Independent Press, Part 1, and Episode 05—Newspapers: An Independent Press, Part 2” (MP4)

    Instructions: Please watch both of these episodes by focusing on how the explanations and examples the program hosts and student guests provide supplement the textbook readings.  In particular, listen for content which relates to the unit outcomes and take notes accordingly, especially when someone uses a specific example to illustrate a point.  Moreover, if you are not as familiar with American media as the textbook assumes you are, you might benefit from listening carefully to the discussions and then writing down the names of media, media personalities, or media products with which you are unfamiliar.  When you’ve finished watching, use the Internet to research any unfamiliar references so that you will be prepared if those references appear in the final exam.

    Watching these episodes should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.1 The Birth of the Printing Press   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.  Please focus on using this material to develop a timeline of important developments so that in the future you will have an efficient way to study how this industry evolved.

4.1.2 European Roots Press – Government Control and Freedom of the Press   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.

4.1.3 Colonial American Newspapers   Note: This subunit and the subunits beneath (4.1.3.1–4.1.3.2) are covered by the reading assigned for subunit 4.1.

4.1.3.1 The Trial of John Peter Zenger   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.

4.1.3.2 Freedom of the Press in the Early United States   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.

4.1.4 Newspapers as a Form of Mass Media   Note: This subunit and the subunits beneath (4.1.4.1–4.1.4.2) are covered by the reading assigned for subunit 4.1.

4.1.4.1 The Penny Press   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.

4.1.4.2 The Growth of Wire Services   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.

4.1.5 Yellow Journalism – Comics and Stunt Journalism   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.

4.2 Different Styles and Models of Journalism   - Reading: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication: “Chapter 4, Section 2: Different Styles and Models of Journalism” Link: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication“Chapter 4, Section 2: Different Styles and Models of Journalism” (PDF)

 Instructions: Focus on understanding the terms used in the readings
and how they drive the review of this unit.  In addition, keep the
outcomes listed above in mind as you read so that you are not only
absorbing facts but also the examples, relationships, and theories
that will enable you to use the information you encounter in the
manner the outcomes describe.  Note that this reading will also
cover the material you need to know for subunits 4.2.1–4.2.5.  

 Reading this section should take approximately 15 minutes. 
Completing the exercises associated with this section may require an
additional 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under
a [Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/) without
attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

4.2.1 Objective versus Story-Driven Journalism   Note: This subunit and the subunits beneath (4.2.1.1–4.2.1.2) are covered by the reading assigned for subunit 4.2.  They are introduced by major or minor subheadings in section 4.2 of the textbook.  As you review this material, please focus on making comparisons among the types of journalism that are described.

4.2.1.1 The Rise of Objective Journalism   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.

4.2.1.2 The Inverted Pyramid Style   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.

4.2.2 Interpretive Journalism – Competition from Broadcasting   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.

4.2.3 Literary Journalism   Note: This subunit and its subunits (4.2.3.1–4.2.3.3) are covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.  They are introduced by major or minor subheadings in section 4.2 of the textbook.

4.2.3.1 Important Literary Journalists   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.

4.2.3.2 The Effects of Literary Journalism   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.

4.2.3.3 Advocacy Journalism and Precision Journalism   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.

4.2.4 Consensus versus Conflict Newspapers   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.

4.2.5 Niche Newspapers – The Underground Press   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.

4.3 How Newspapers Control the Public’s Access to Information and Impact American Pop Culture   - Reading: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication: “Chapter 4, Section 3: How Newspapers Control the Public’s Access to Information and Impact American Pop Culture” Link: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication: “Chapter 4, Section 3: How Newspapers Control the Public’s Access to Information and Impact American Pop Culture” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please focus on understanding the terms used in the
readings and how they drive the review of this unit.  In addition,
keep the outcomes listed above in mind as you read so that you are
not only absorbing facts but also the examples, relationships, and
theories that will enable you to use the information you encounter
in the manner the outcomes describe.  Note that this reading will
also cover the material you need to know for subunits 4.3.1–4.3.3.  

 Reading this section should take approximately 15 minutes. 
Completing the exercises associated with this section may require an
additional 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under
a [Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/) without
attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

4.3.1 “All the News That’s Fit to Print”   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.  To appreciate the points made in this material, avoid viewing the units in isolation.  Instead, consider the newspapers you have encountered, the role they play in your life and/or community, and how they affect or have been affected by other media.

4.3.2 Watchdog Journalism   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.

4.3.3 Impact of Television and the Internet on Print – Case Study: USA Today   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.

4.4 Current Popular Trends in the Newspaper Industry   - Reading: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication: “Chapter 4, Section 4: Current Popular Trends in the Newspaper Industry” Link: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication“Chapter 4, Section 4: Current Popular Trends in the Newspaper Industry” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Focus on understanding the terms used in the readings and how they drive the review of this unit.  In addition, keep the outcomes listed above in mind as you read so that you are not only absorbing facts but also the examples, relationships, and theories that will enable you to use the information you encounter in the manner the outcomes describe.  Note that this reading will also cover the material you need to know for subunits 4.4.1–4.4.3.
 
Reading this section should take approximately 15 minutes.  Completing the exercises associated with this section may require an additional 15 minutes.

 Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under
a [Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/) without
attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

4.4.1 Major Publications in the U.S. Newspaper Industry   Note: This subunit and the subunits beneath (4.4.1.1–4.4.1.6) are covered by the reading assigned for subunit 4.4.  They are introduced by major or minor subheadings in section 4.4 of the textbook.  You will discover that the subsections in these readings are actual newspapers published in the United States.  These are the leading newspapers in the United States, but if you are from a different country – or if you have experience living in a different country – you might want to compare these newspapers with what you would identify as the leading newspaper(s) in other countries.  Chances are, you will find many similarities but also some differences that are driven by the culture and socioeconomic environment in which they evolved.

4.4.1.1 USA Today   4.4.1.2 The Wall Street Journal   4.4.1.3 The New York Times   4.4.1.4 Los Angeles Times   4.4.1.5 The Washington Post   4.4.1.6 Chicago Tribune   4.4.2 Declining Readership and Decreasing Revenues   Note: This subunit and the subunits beneath (4.4.2.1–4.4.2.2) are covered by the reading assigned for subunit 4.4.  They are introduced by major or minor subheadings in section 4.4 of the textbook.  As you read this material, focus on projecting where the developments you encounter will lead.  What is next, in your opinion?  Will these developments be beneficial or detrimental?  Why?

4.4.2.1 Readership Decline   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.4.

4.4.2.2 Joint Operating Agreements   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.4.

4.5 Online Journalism Redefines News   - Reading: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication: “Chapter 4, Section 5: Online Journalism Redefines News” Link: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication“Chapter 4, Section 5: Online Journalism Redefines News” (PDF)

 Instructions: Focus on understanding the terms used in the readings
and how they drive the review of this unit.  In addition, keep the
outcomes listed above in mind as you read so that you are not only
absorbing facts but also the examples, relationships, and theories
that will enable you to use the information you encounter in the
manner the outcomes describe.  Note that this reading will also
cover the material you need to know for subunits 4.5.1–4.5.2.  

 Reading this section should take approximately 15 minutes. 
Completing the exercises, end-of-chapter assessment, critical
thinking questions, and career connection associated with this
section may require an additional 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under
a [Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/) without
attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

4.5.1 Competition from Blogs – Advantages over Print Media   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.5.

4.5.2 Online Newspapers   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.5.