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CHEM204: Bioorganic Chemistry

Unit 2: Biomolecules   Biomolecules are organic molecules synthesized in living organisms.  All biomolecules are organic, meaning that they are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen.  Some biomolecules contain other atoms as well (e.g.  phosphorus and/or sulfur).  Biomolecules vary in size.  Some are large polymeric molecules, such as proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids, while others are small, such as metabolites, lipids, and the monomers of the polymers.
           
In Organic Chemistry, you learned about organic compounds; this unit will focus on carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids that occur in the cell.  In Organic Chemistry, you also learned about stereoisomerism; this unit will focus on stereoisomers that are produced by the cell, including chiral molecules and cis-trans isomers.  You may recall that some reactions involving organic compounds produce specific stereoisomers.  The stereoselectivity of reactions in the cell is more pronounced, because enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions are chiral themselves.  Only one enzyme enantiomer exists in the cell and has biological activity.  Life on Earth is chiral.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 30.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 4 hours ☐    Subunit 2.1.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 2.1.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 2.2: 3.75 hours ☐    Subunit 2.2.1: 1.75 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 8 hours ☐    Subunit 2.3.1: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3.4: 0.5 hour

☐    Subunit 2.4: 5.25 hours ☐    Subunit 2.4.1: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4.2: 2.75 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6: 6 hours ☐    Subunit 2.6.1: 2.25 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 2.6.3: 2.75 hours

☐    Subunit 2.7: 0.75 hour

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Identify and characterize lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleic acids. - Recognize chiral organic molecules, and explain their biological significance. - Recognize cis-trans isomers, and explain their biological significance. - Compare and contrast the progress of chemical reactions with and without catalysis. - Define the function of coenzymes. - Design enzyme catalyzed reactions leading to high-energy compound products.

2.1 Chirality and Biological Chemistry   2.1.1 Enantiomers   - Lecture: Khan Academy's "Introduction to Chirality" Link: Khan Academy's "Introduction to Chirality" (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and take notes as you watch the video (7 minutes).  Listen the presentation carefully two or three times as needed until you are able to explain what chirality is and also how to recognize a chiral molecule.  Note that chirality rests on the presence of at least one carbon atom, which binds to four different functional groups.
 
Viewing this lecture several times and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Lecture: Khan Academy's "Chiral Examples 1" and "Chiral Examples 2" Link: Khan Academy's "Chiral Examples 1" and "Chiral Examples 2" (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the links above, and take notes as you watch the videos (12 minutes and 11 minutes respectively).  Listen to the presentation carefully two or three times as needed, and practice how to recognize a chiral molecule by working through the examples provided in the video lectures.
     
    Viewing these lectures several times and pausing to practice the identification of chiral molecules should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: These videos are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  They are attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Optical or Chiral” Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Optical or Chiral” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and on a separate piece of paper,answer all of the quiz questions in the “Chiral or Optical Isomers” column of the table.  Then, click on the drop-down menu next to each question to check your answers.  Note that chiral compounds are also called “optical isomers” or “optically active” substances, because the isomers have the ability to rotate the plane of the polarized light.  Optical activity is measured with polarimeter, and some microscopes are equipped with polarimeter.  
     
    This assessment will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.1.2 Diastereomers, Epimers, and Meso Compounds   - Lecture: Khan Academy’s “Stereoisomers, Enantiomers, Diastereomers, Constitutional Isomers, and Meso Compounds” Link: Khan Academy’s “Stereoisomers, Enantiomers, Diastereomers, Constitutional Isomers, and Meso Compounds” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and take notes as you watch the video (14 minutes).  Listen to the presentation carefully two or three times until you are able to explain what diastereomers are and how to recognize a chiral molecule and a diastereomer.  Note that diastereomers include cis-trans isomers, non-enantiomeric chiral compounds, and epimers; epimers have more than one chiral center, but differ only in one chiral center (the others are identical); and meso compounds have an internal plane of symmetry.  
 
Viewing this lecture several times and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Cis – Trans Isomers of Alkenes” Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Cis – Trans Isomers of Alkenes” (HTML)

                                                                                             
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and on a separate piece of paper, answer all "Quiz" questions in the "Cis – Trans Isomers of Alkenes" column of the table.  Finally, click on the drop-down menu next to each question to check your answers. 
     
    This assessment should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.1.3 Prochirality   - Reading: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry: A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson’s Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed.: “Prochirality” Link: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry: A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson’s Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed.:Prochirality” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study this entire webpage.  Take advantage of the “Interactive Link Maps” at the bottom of the page; in particular, make sure to select the links to “First Level,” “Second Level,” and “Third Level.”  
 
Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.2 Biomolecules: Lipids   2.2.1 Triacylglycerols, Waxes, and Phospholipids   - Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Lipids” Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Lipids” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study the “1. Fatty Acids,” “3. Fats and Oils,” “4. Waxes,” and “5. Phospholipids” sections on this webpage.  Click on the link to “Unusual Fatty Acids” in section “1. Fatty Acids.”  Also, select any embedded hyperlinks to examine lipid models.  Note that fatty acids may have double bonds.  The vast majority of naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids are cis isomers; trans-fats are byproducts of industrial vegetable oil solidifying methods.  Trans-fat consumption coincides with an increased rate of cardiovascular disease.  

 Studying this resource and taking notes will take approximately 1
hour 30 minutes to complete.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Fatty Acids” Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Fatty Acids” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and on a separate piece of paper, answer all quiz questions in the “Fatty Acids” column of the table.  Then, click on the drop-down menu next to each question to check your answers.  
     
    This assessment will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.2.2 Other Lipids: Terpenoids, Steroids, and Prostaglandins   - Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Lipids” Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Lipids” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to “Prostaglandins Thromboxanes & Leukotrienes,” “Terpenes,” and “Steroids,” and study these sections in their entirety.  Select the embedded “Click Here” links to examine lipid models.  Also, click on the grey “Toggle Structures” button to reveal the structural formulas of additional lipids.  Note that the arachidonic acid is an ω-6 fatty acid; it is an essential fatty acid, which is the precursor of prostaglandin and leukotriene production.  
 
Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
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  • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Prostaglandins” Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Prostaglandins” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above,and on a separate piece of paper, answer all of the quiz questions in the “Prostaglandins” column of the table.  Then, click on the drop-down menu next to each question to check your answers. 
     
    This assessment will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Steroids” Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Steroids” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and on a separate piece of paper,answer all of the quiz questions in the “Prostaglandins” column of the table.  Then, click on the drop-down menu next to each question to check your answers. 
     
    This assessment will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3 Biomolecules: Carbohydrates   2.3.1 Carbohydrate Stereochemistry   - Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Carbohydrates” Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Carbohydrates” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study the “1. Glucose” and “3. Ketoses” sections on this webpage.  Please note the number of optical hexose isomers, including diastereomers.  Make sure to click on any embedded links to read about associated content.
 
Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
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  • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Carbohydrate Quiz” Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Carbohydrate Quiz” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please note that this assessment is optional.  Please click on the link above to access the assessment, and read the instructions at the top of the webpage.  Please click on a "Graphic" link in the "Static Graphic Image" column; this will show you the structural formula of a carbohydrate compound.  Your task is to recognize the compound.  After you have identified the compound, check your answer.  The right answers are in the "Compound" column of the table: click on the drop-down menu labeled "Answer" to reveal the correct answer to the quiz question.  Next, determine if  the structural formula is an alpha or a beta epimer.  In the "Alpha or Beta" column of the table, click on the drop down menu labeled "Answer" to reveal the correct answer to the quiz question.
     
    This assessment will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3.2 Monosaccharide Anomers   - Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Carbohydrates” Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Carbohydrates” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to “4. Anomeric Forms of Glucose,” “5. Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides,” and “6. Glycosides,” and study these sections on this webpage.  Note that the cyclic anomers are hemiacetals.
 
Studying this resource will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
 
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2.3.3 Disaccharides and Polysaccharides   - Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s “Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates” Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s “Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Carbohydrates” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to “7. Disaccharides” and “8. Polysaccharides,” and study these sections on this webpage.  
 
Studying this resource will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
 
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2.3.4 Sugar Derivatives   - Reading: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan’s “Carbohydrates – Sugar and Polysaccharides” Link: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan's "Carbohydrates – Sugar and Polysaccharides" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study the four diagrams and their descriptions in the “Sugar Derivatives” section.  Please note the substitutions in these sugar derivatives, and investigate if these substitutions influence the number of chiral carbon atoms in the molecule.
 
Studying this resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
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2.4 Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins   2.4.1 Amino Acids   - Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Proteins, Peptides, & Amino Acids” Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: "Proteins, Peptides, & Amino Acids” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to “2. Natural α-Amino Acids,” “3. The Isoelectric Point,” and "4. Other Natural Amino Acids," and study these sections in their entirety.  Please locate the "Physical Properties of Selected Acids and Amines" tablein the “2. Natural α-Amino Acids” section, and compare the structures of tyrosine, cysteine, lysine, and aspartic acid.  
 
Studying this resource will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
 
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  • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Review of Characteristics and Properties of Amino Acids” Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Review of Characteristics and Properties of Amino Acids” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and answer the questions in the “Polar or Non-Polar” and “Acidic, Basic, or Neutral” columns.  Twenty amino acids are listed here, thus you have to answer forty questions.  Make sure that you answer each question before you check the correct answer.  Please write down your responses.  After you have identified each structure, you can check whether your responses are correct by clicking on the drop-down menus marked “Answer.”

    This assessment will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.4.2 Peptides and Proteins   - Reading: John W. Kimball's Biology Pages: “Proteins” Link: John W. Kimball's Biology Pages: “Proteins” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study this entire webpage.  Next, follow the links at the bottom of this page to learn “How Proteins Get Their Shape,” “Primary Structure,” “Secondary Structure,” “Tertiary Structure,” and “Quaternary Structure.”  Please take advantage of the many embedded links on this page.  
 
Studying this resource will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Proteins - Introduction” Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Proteins – Introduction” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and complete the two quiz sections in the “Proteins – Introduction” column.  Please write you’re your answers, and explain your response.  Finally, select the “Answer” drop down menu to view the correct answer.
     
    This assessment will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Amino Acid Peptide Bonds” Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Amino Acid Peptide Bonds” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and complete all quiz questions in the “Amino Acid Peptide Bonds” column.  Please write down the complete reaction or the reaction product as required before checking the correct response.  You can check whether your responses are correct by clicking on the “Answer Graphic” link.  
     
    This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.5 Biomolecules: Nucleic Acids   2.5.1 DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid   - Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Nucleic Acids” Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Nucleic Acids” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to “2. The Chemical Nature of DNA” and “4. The Secondary Structure of DNA,” and study these sections on this webpage.  Please note that the backbone of the nucleic acid polymer is made of phosphodiester bonds.
 
Studying this resource will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
 
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  • Assessment: University of Arizona: The Biology Project’s “Nucleic Acids and the Genetic Material – Problem Set 1” Link: The University of Arizona: The Biology Project’s “Nucleic Acids and the Genetic Material – Problem Set 1” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and complete "Problem 8: Complementary Bases.”  Clicking on a response will lead you to a tutorial page where your response will be accepted, if it is correct.  If you make a mistake, you will find a short explanation on the page.  In this case where you have selected an incorrect answer, please return to the problem, and try answering the question again.
     
    This assessment will take approximately15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright ant terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.5.2 RNA: Ribonucleic Acid   - Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Nucleic Acids” Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Nucleic Acids” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study the “3. RNA, a Different Nucleic Acid” section on this webpage.  Click on the “Components of Nucleic Acids” table to reveal the structure of a short RNA polymer.  
 
This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
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  • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “DNA and RNA Introduction” Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:DNA and RNA Introduction” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and on a separate piece of paper,complete the two quiz sections in the “DNA and RNA Introduction” column.  You can check whether your responses are correct by selecting the “Answer” drop down menu. 
     
    This resource will take approximately15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6 Biomolecules: Enzymes, Coenzymes, and Coupled Reactions   2.6.1 Enzymes   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates: G. M. Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2nd edition: “The Central Role of Enzymes as Biological Catalysts” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates: G. M. Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2nd edition: “The Central Role of Enzymes as Biological Catalysts” (HTML)
 
Instruction: Please click on the link above, and study "The Catalytic Activity of Enzymes,” the "Mechanisms of Enzymatic Catalysis,” and the "Regulation of Enzyme Activity" sections on this page.  Please note that the "Coenzymes" section of this webpage will be covered in Subunit 2.6.2.
 
Reading and note taking will take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
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  • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Role of Enzymes in Biochemical Reactions” Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Role of Enzymes in Biochemical Reactions” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and complete the quiz questions in the “Role of Enzymes in Biochemical Reactions” column.  Please write down your responses.  You can check whether your responses are correct by clicking on the drop-down menu “Answer” boxes.  
     
    This assessment will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Enzyme Inhibitors” Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Enzyme Inhibitors” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and complete the quiz questions in the “Enzyme Inhibitors” column.  Please write down your responses.  You can check whether your responses are correct by clicking on the drop-down menu “Answer” boxes.  
     
    This assessment will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.2 Coenzymes   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates: G. M. Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2nd edition: “The Central Role of Enzymes as Biological Catalysts" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates: G. M. Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2nd edition:The Central Role of Enzymes as Biological Catalysts" (HTML)
 
Instruction: Please click on the link above, and study the "Coenzymes" section on this page.  Note that coenzymes are essential for the activity of many enzymes.  Please note that you have already studied this webpage in Subunit 2.6.1, where you have focused on general characteristics of enzymes.  Enzymes are amino acid polymers.  In this Subunit, you learn about coenzymes, which are small organic molecules.  Coenzymes are essential for the biological activity of certain enzymes.  For example, nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is essential for the function of alcohol dehydrogenase, which has a detoxification role in our body after alcohol consumption.  Many enzymes catalyze biological reactions without needing a coenzyme, e.g. trypsin and chymotrypsin work without coenzyme; these enzymes catalyze protein hydrolysis in the small intestine.
 
This resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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2.6.3 Coupled Reactions and High-Energy Compounds   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: W. H. Freeman: Berg et al.’s Biochemistry, 5th edition: “Metabolism Is Composed of Many Coupled, Interconnecting Reactions” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: W. H. Freeman: Berg et al.’s Biochemistry, 5th edition: “Metabolism Is Composed of Many Coupled, Interconnecting Reactions” (HTML)
 
Instruction: Please click on the link above, and study this entire text.  Please note that anabolic reactions invest energy into building complex molecules, and this energy is provided by catabolic reactions.  
 
Reading and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes to complete.
 
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  • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Electron Transport” Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Electron Transport” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and complete the quiz questions in the “Electron Transport” column.  Please write down your answers.  You can check whether your responses are correct by clicking on the drop-down menu “Answer” boxes.  
     
    This assessment should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
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2.7 Test Your Understanding on the Structures of Biomolecules   - Assessment: Yakima Valley Community College: J. Loveland’s “Name the Biomolecule” Link: Yakima Valley Community College: J. Loveland’s “Name the Biomolecule” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above to access the assessment.  You will find the structural formula of a biomolecule in the center of the page and the names of 14 biomolecule groups on the right side.  Drag and drop the name of the biomolecule into the black box under the structural formula.  You will receive immediate feedback.  If your answer iscorrect,the next structural formula will appear and you can choose again.  If your answer is incorrect, then you may try to answer the question again.  You can also bypass a structural formula if you do not know the answer by clicking on the “Next” button, which appears at the top of the webpage above the structural formula.  This website has a large database, so expect to see different structural formulas and several different structures for the same compound groups.  
 
This assessment will take approximately 45 minutes to complete.  
 
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