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CHEM202: Advanced Inorganic Chemistry

Unit 10: Practical Applications of Inorganic Compounds   Inorganic compounds and organometallic compounds have many interesting real-world applications.  Some simple compounds, such as cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2], are the basis for successful chemotherapy drugs.  Medicinal inorganic chemistry as a discipline has only existed for about the last 30 years, since the discovery of the antitumor activity of cisplatin, cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2].  Pt-based combination chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the treatment of solid malignancies (especially testicular, ovarian, and small cell lung cancers).  In this unit, we will also learn about the application of other transition metal complexes to medicine.

Other organometallic complexes exhibit unique photophysical properties, such as light absorption and light emissions, that find useful applications in solar cells and electronic displays.  Exploitation of the redox properties of metal complexes allows new generations of batteries to constantly emerge into the market.  This unit looks at the practical applications and new technologies in each of these areas.  

Unit 10 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 18 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 10.1: 5.0 hours

☐    Subunit 10.2: 4.0 hours

☐    Subunit 10.3: 4.0 hours

☐    Subunit 10.4: 5.0 hours

Unit10 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Describe current, practical applications of inorganic chemistry in the areas of medicinal chemistry, solar energy, electronic displays, and batteries.
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the emerging technologies.

 

10.1 Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry   - Reading: PBWorks’ “Organometallic Pharmaceuticals” Link: PBWorks’ “Organometallic Pharmaceuticals” (HTML)
 
Also available in:

[PDF](http://mcindoe.pbworks.com/w/page/20651672/Organometallic%20pharmaceuticals?mode=print)  
    
 Instructions: Please read the entire webpage.  This material gives
a short background of organometallic chemistry and how
organometallic complexes are useful in the pharmaceutical field. 
The two main classifications discussed here are anticancer drugs and
antimicrobials.   
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the terms of use displayed on the
webpage above.

10.1.1 Platinum   - Reading: Mitch Miller for University of Bristol’s Molecule of the Month (August 2000): “Cisplatin” Link: Mitch Miller for University of Bristol’s Molecule of the Month (August 2000): “Cisplatin” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please use the available information links on the left side of the screen to navigate through the information.  You may also access interactive views of the molecules by clicking on the “Chime” or ChemSymphony” links under the structure on the left side of the page. 
 
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  • Reading: University of Illinois: Jane L. Stanley’s “Overcoming Resistance to the Antitumor Action of Cisplatin: New Compounds and Modes of Delivery” Link: University of Illinois: Jane L. Stanley’s “Overcoming Resistance to the Antitumor Action of Cisplatin: New Compounds and Modes of Delivery” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the third from last link in the “Literature Seminar” section of Fall 2004 to open the PDF file.  This article discusses some of the problems and new advances with platinum-based anticancer drugs.       
     
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10.1.2 Ruthenium   - Reading: University of Illinois: Mark Ringenberg’s “Organoruthenium Anticancer Agents: Scope and Reactivity” Link: University of Illinois: Mark Ringenberg’s “Organiruthenium Anticancer Agents: Scope and Reactivity” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the second-to-last link in the “Literature Seminar” section of Fall 2007 to open the PDF file.  This article explores a ruthenium-based organometallic complex as a possible replacement to current platinum-based anticancer drugs.       
 
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10.1.3 Vanadium   - Reading: University of Illinois: Natasha H. Yeung’s “Insulin Mimetic Vanadium Compounds” Link: University of Illinois: Natasha H. Yeung’s “Insulin Mimetic Vanadium Compounds” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the last link in the “Literature Seminar” section of Fall 2004 to open the PDF file.  This article introduces a vanadium compound which may prove useful in the treatment and control of diabetes.       
 
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10.2 Solar Cells   - Reading: Bulletin of Japan Society of Coordination Chemistry, Volume 51 (2008), 3–12: Michael Graetzel’s: “Transition Metal Complexes as Sensitizers for Efficient Mesoscopic Solar Cells” Link: Bulletin of Japan Society of Coordination Chemistry, Volume 51 (2008), 3–12:Michael Graetzel’s: “Transition Metal Complexes as Sensitizers for Efficient Mesoscopic Solar Cells” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link to download the PDF of this review article.  This material is comprehensive about recent advances in inorganic chemistry with the application to solar cells.  It also covers some material on electronic displays, which will be discussed in subunit 10.3. 
 
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  • Reading: University of Illinois: Tom Mahle’s “Photoelectrochemical Synthesis: Beyond Gratzel Cells” Link: University of Illinois: Tom Mahle’s “Photoelectrochemical Synthesis: Beyond Gratzel Cells” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the third link in the “Literature Seminar” section of Fall 2010 to open the PDF file.  This material probes the use of iridium for conversion of solar energy to fuel.       
     
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  • Web Media: Science Daily, April 13, 2011: “Device Proves Solar Cell Potential of High Bandgap Inorganic Nanowire Arrays” Link: Science Daily, April 13, 2011: “Device Proves Solar Cell Potential of High Bandgap Inorganic Nanowire Arrays”  (HTML) 
     
    Instructions: Please read the article.  This material demonstrates advances in inorganic chemistry for the application of zinc chemistry in both nanowires and solar cells.
     
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10.3 Electronic Displays   - Reading: University of Wisconsin’s Exploring the Nanoworld: “LEDs” Link: University of Wisconsin’s Exploring the Nanoworld “LEDs” (HTML and QuickTime Video)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire webpage.  This material explains how LEDs work, the preparation of LEDs, and practical applications.  Remember that chemical compostion affects the molecular orbitals of molecules, and knowledge of how to manipulate these orbitals, in turn, is useful when tuning LEDs. 
 
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  • Reading: University of Illinois: Nathan Eddingsaas’ “Cyclometalated Iridium and Platinum Phosphors in OLEDs” Link: University of Illinois: Nathan Eddingsaas’ “Cyclometalated Iridium and Platinum Phosphors in OLEDs” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the second link in the “Literature Seminar” section of Fall 2004 to open the PDF file.  This material proposes the inclusion of inorganic complexes into traditional organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) to increase efficiency.
     
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  • Reading: University of Illinois: Noel Chang’s “Copper Coordination Compounds as Highly Emissive Dopants in Organic LEDs” Link: University of Illinois: Noel Chang’s “Copper Coordination Compounds as Highly Emissive Dopants in Organic LEDs” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the first link in the “Literature Seminar” section of Fall 2010 to open the PDF file.  This material discusses the current status of inorganic materials used in OLEDS and proposes the use of copper as a low cost alternative. 
     
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  • Web Media: Ars Technica: John Timmer’s "Scientists Make Bendable, Transparent LEDs—Without Organics" Link: Ars Technica: John Timmer’s “Scientists Make Bendable, Transparent LEDs—Without Organics” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the article.  This material discusses the development of a flexible, transparent LED that is less expensive to produce than traditional organic LEDs.  The findings from this research are being applied to development of a new type of television screen.  The advancements discussed here are just an example of the inorganic research that occurs on a daily basis.
     
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10.4 Batteries   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki’s “Case Study: Battery Types” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki’s “Case Study: Battery Types” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire webpage and work the eight practice problems at the bottom of the page.  This material provides a more detailed explanation of the different types of batteries and the chemical reactions that occur in each. 
 
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  • Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki’s “Batteries: Electricity Through Chemical Reactions” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki’s “Batteries: Electricity Through Chemical Reactions” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entire webpage and work the five practice problems at the bottom of the page.  The basic principles of electrochemistry of batteries are covered.  Different types of batteries are also introduced.
     
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  • Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki’s “Rechargeable Batteries” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki’s “Rechargeable Batteries” (HTML)                                                                             
     
    Instructions: Please read the entire webpage.  The chemistry of three types of secondary cell (rechargeable) batteries is discussed.
     
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  • Web Media: How Stuff Works: “How Lithium-Ion Batteries Work” Link:  How Stuff Works: “How Lithium-Ion Batteries Work” (HTML and Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Please read the first three sections of this article.  Several advantages and disadvantages of lithium-ion batteries are discussed.  The reactions inside the batteries are explained and the validity of “exploding batteries” is revealed. 
     
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