Loading...

CHEM108: Analytical Chemistry

Unit 2: Spectrochemical Methods   This unit is a survey of various spectrochemical methods, which depend on the measurement of the wavelength and intensity of electromagnetic radiation.  Chemical compounds are measured by the amount of energy absorbed as molecules change based on these methods.  The unit begins with an explanation of the different types of electromagneticradiationand the different methods of measuring this radiation.  Each spectrochemical methodhas its own advantages and disadvantages.  As you move through theunit, make sure you also have a general idea of the components within the spectrometer.  This unit moves on to describe UV-Visible and Infra-Red(IR) spectroscopy.  UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy is most useful in determining the concentration of a sample (Beer’s Law) and in determining if conjugation is present in the molecule.  Furthermore, molecules containing charge-transfer properties can also be measured via UV-Vis spectroscopy.IR is useful to identify functional groups as we have seen in organic chemistry.  This unit concludes with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which is primarily used in structure elucidation of organic compounds.   

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit will take approximately 17 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 2.0 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 4.0 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 9.0 hours

☐    Introduction: 5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 2.3.1: 2 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 2.3.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 2.0 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the basic principles behind spectroscopy.
  • Explain the theory of UV-Vis, IR, and NMR spectroscopy.
  • Identify the components of UV-Vis, IR, and NMR spectrometers.
  • Use data obtained from UV-Vis, IR, and NMR spectroscopy to determine sample information, such as analyte concentrations or structure.

2.1 Principles of Spectroscopy   - Reading: David Harvey’s Analytical Chemistry 2.0: “Chapter 10, Section 10A: Overview of Spectroscopy” Link: David Harvey’s Analytical Chemistry 2.0: “Chapter 10, Section 10A: Overview of Spectroscopy” (PDF)

 Instructions: Click on the link to Chapter 10 to open the PDF. 
Read section 10A, starting on page 544 of the text.  You may choose
to save this file to your desktop for easy access.  This material
also covers the topics outlined in sections 2.1.1-2.1.3 of this
course.  
    
 Terms of Use: <span href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Text"
rel="dc:type">Analytical Chemistry 2.0</span> by [David
Harvey](http://web.me.com/dtharvey1213/Analytical_Chemistry_2.0/Welcome.html) is
licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/). The
original version can be
found [here](http://www.asdlib.org/onlineArticles/ecourseware/Analytical%20Chemistry%202.0/Text_Files.html). 

2.1.1 Electromagnetic Radiation   2.1.2 Signal Source   2.1.3 Instrument Components   2.2 Beer’s Law (A = ?bc)   - Reading: David Harvey’s Analytical Chemistry 2.0: “Chapter 10, Section 10B: Spectroscopy Based on Absorption” Link: David Harvey’s Analytical Chemistry 2.0: “Chapter 10, Section 10B: Spectroscopy Based on Absorption” (PDF)

 Instructions: Click on the link to Chapter 10 to open the PDF. 
Read section 10B, starting on page 556 of the text.  This material
also covers the topics outlined in sections 2.2.1-2.2.5 of this
course.  

 Terms of Use: <span href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Text"
rel="dc:type">Analytical Chemistry 2.0</span> by [David
Harvey](http://web.me.com/dtharvey1213/Analytical_Chemistry_2.0/Welcome.html) is
licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).  The
original version can be
found [here](http://www.asdlib.org/onlineArticles/ecourseware/Analytical%20Chemistry%202.0/Text_Files.html).
  • Assessment: David Harvey’s Analytical Chemistry 2.0: “Chapter 10: Spectroscopic Methods:” Practice Exercises 10.1-10.4 Link: David Harvey’s Analytical Chemistry 2.0: “Chapter 10: Spectroscopic Methods:” Practice Exercises 10.1-10.4 (PDF)

    Instructions: Click on the link to Chapter 10 to open the PDF.  Try to solve practice problems 10.1 (p. 546), 10.2 (p. 547), 10.3 (p. 562), and 10.4 (p. 564).  Solutions to these problems begin on page 662.   

    Terms of Use: Analytical Chemistry 2.0 by David Harvey is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.  The original version can be found here.

  • Reading: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Beer’s Law” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Beer’s Law” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the entire webpage.  This material explains the variables and applications of Beer’s Law. 

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Beer’s Law Quiz” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Beer’s Law Quiz” (HTML)

    Instructions: Complete the quiz, and then check your answers by clicking on the button at the bottom of the webpage. 

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Davidson College: David N. Blauch’s “Virtual Chemistry Experiments: Analysis of an Unknown Solution” Link: Davidson College: David N. Blauch’s “Virtual Chemistry Experiments: Analysis of an Unknown Solution” (HTML, Java)

    Instructions:  This is a simulated laboratory experiment.  You will measure the transmittance of samples of known concentrations in order to construct a calibration curve.  You will then measure the transmittance of an unknown sample and use the calibration curve to determine its concentration.  Remember A = -log(T). 

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3 UV-Visible (UV-Vis) and Infrared Absorption (IR) Spectroscopy   - Reading: David Harvey’s Analytical Chemistry 2.0: “Chapter 10, Section 10C: UV/Vis and IR Spectroscopy” Link: David Harvey’s Analytical Chemistry 2.0: “Chapter 10, Section 10C: UV/Vis and IR Spectroscopy” (PDF)

 Instructions: Click on the link to Chapter 10 to open the PDF. 
Read section 10C, starting on page 567 of the text.     

 Terms of Use: <span href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Text"
rel="dc:type">Analytical Chemistry 2.0</span> by [David
Harvey](http://web.me.com/dtharvey1213/Analytical_Chemistry_2.0/Welcome.html) is
licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).  The
original version can be
found [here](http://www.asdlib.org/onlineArticles/ecourseware/Analytical%20Chemistry%202.0/Text_Files.html).
  • Assessment: David Harvey’s Analytical Chemistry 2.0: “Chapter 10: Spectroscopic Methods:” Practice Exercises 10.5-10.10 Link: David Harvey’s Analytical Chemistry 2.0: “Chapter 10: Spectroscopic Methods:” Practice Exercises 10.5-10.10 (PDF)

    Instructions: Click on the link to Chapter 10 to open the PDF.  Work on practice exercises 10.5 (p. 582), 10.6 (p. 584), 10.7 (p. 586), 10.8 (p. 590), 10.9 (p. 594), and 10.10 (p. 595).  Solutions to these problems begin on page 663.   

    Terms of Use: Analytical Chemistry 2.0 by David Harvey is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.  The original version can be found here

2.3.1 UV-Vis Spectroscopy   - Reading: Sheffield Hallam University’s “UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy – Theoretical Principles” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy – Theoretical Principles” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the entire webpage.  This material explains how
UV-Vis spectroscopy analyzes samples.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Assessment: Sheffield Hallam University’s “UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy – Theoretical Principles Quiz” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy – Theoretical Principles Quiz” (HTML)

    Instructions: Complete the quiz, and check your answers by clicking on the button at the bottom of the page. 

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Sheffield Hallam University’s “UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy – Instrumentation” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy – Instrumentation” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the entire webpage.  This material covers the components of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: Sheffield Hallam University’s “UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy – Instrumentation Quiz” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy – Instrumentation Quiz” (HTML)

    Instructions: Complete the quiz, and check your answers by clicking on the button at the bottom of the page. 

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3.2 IR Spectroscopy   - Reading: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Infra-Red Absorption Spectroscopy – Theoretical Principles” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Infra-Red Absorption Spectroscopy – Theoretical Principles” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the entire webpage.  This material explains how
IR spectroscopy analyzes samples.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Assessment: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Infra-Red Absorption Spectroscopy – Theoretical Principles Quiz” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Infra-Red Absorption Spectroscopy – Theoretical Principles Quiz” (HTML)

    Instructions: Complete the quiz, and check your answers by clicking on the button at the bottom of the page. 

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Infra-Red Absorption Spectroscopy – Instrumentation” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Infra-Red Absorption Spectroscopy – Instrumentation” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the entire webpage.  This material covers the components of an IR spectrophotometer.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Infra-Red Absorption Spectroscopy – Instrumentation Quiz” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Infra-Red Absorption Spectroscopy – Instrumentation Quiz” (HTML)

    Instructions: Complete the quiz, and then check your answers by clicking on the button at the bottom of the page. 

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)   - Reading: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy – Theoretical Principles” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy – Theoretical Principles” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the entire webpage.  This material explains how
NMR spectroscopy analyzes samples.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Assessment: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy – Theoretical Principles Quiz” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy – Theoretical Principles Quiz” (HTML)

    Instructions: Complete the quiz, and then check your answers by clicking on the button at the bottom of the page. 

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy – Instrumentation” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy – Instrumentation” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the entire webpage.  This material covers the components of an NMR spectrometer.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy – Instrumentation Quiz” Link: Sheffield Hallam University’s “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy – Instrumentation Quiz” (HTML)

    Instructions: Complete the quiz, and then check your answers by clicking on the button at the bottom of the page. 

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.