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CHEM107: Inorganic Chemistry

Unit 7: Groups 1–7 of the Periodic Table   In this unit, we will look at the properties of the elements in Groups 1–7 of the periodic table.  We will also discuss organometallic compounds of the elements within each respective group.  Remember that organometallics is the study of metals bonded to nonmetals.  In organic chemistry, we have seen organometallic reagents in the form of Grignard reagents, metal hydrides, etc.  

Unit 7 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 15 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 7.1: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.4: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.6: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.7: 2.5 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to: - Identify the elements of the Groups 1–7 metals. - Describe the synthesis and reactivity of compounds of the Groups 1–7 metals.

7.1 Group 1: Alkali Metals   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 1: The Alkali Metals” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 1: The Alkali Metals” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and then attempt the problems.  Please be sure to view the Google Videos linked on this webpage.  This material also covers subunits 7.1.1 and 7.1.2. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
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  • Reading: WebElements: “Lithium,” “Sodium,” “Potassium,” “Rubidium,” “Caesium,” and “Francium” Links: WebElements: “Lithium,” “Sodium,”  “Potassium,” “Rubidium,” “Caesium,” and “Francium” (HTML)
     
    Note: All the resources above are in HTML format.

    Instructions: Please read these entire webpages.  Look on the left-hand side of the page for the “Chemistry and Compounds” heading.  In the links under this section, you will find detailed examples of complexes and reactions for each Group 1 metal.  These materials also cover subunits 7.1.1 through 7.1.3.
     
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7.1.1 Reactivity   - Reading: Chemguide: “Reactions of the Group 1 Elements with Water” and “Reactions of the Group 2 Elements with Oxygen and Chlorine” Links: Chemguide: “Reactions of the Group 1 Elements with Water” (HTML) and “Reactions of the Group 2 Elements with Oxygen and Chlorine” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these entire webpages for detailed information on Group 1 metal reactions.
 
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7.1.2 Formation of Hydroxides, Oxides, and Salts with Oxoacids   7.1.3 Hydration of Cations   7.1.4 Deprotonation of Organic Molecules by Alkali Metals   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Organolithium Reagent” Link: Wikipedia: “Organolithium Reagent” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of synthesis, structure, and properties of organolithium compounds.  This material also covers subunit 7.1.5.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

  • Reading: Wikipedia: “Organosodium Chemistry” Link: Wikipedia: “Organosodium Chemistry” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of synthesis, structure, and properties of organosodium compounds.  The section “Higher Alkali Metals” provides information on organopotassium, organorubidium, and organocaesium complexes.
     
    Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).
     

7.1.5 Basicity of Organolithium Compounds   7.2 Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and then attempt the problems.  This material also covers subunits 7.2.1 through 7.2.4. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above

  • Reading: WebElements: “Beryllium,” “Magnesium,” “Calcium,” “Strontium,” “Barium,” and “Radium” Links: WebElements: “Beryllium,” “Magnesium,” “Calcium,” “Strontium,” “Barium,” and “Radium” (HTML)
     
    Note: All the resources above are in HTML format.
     
    Instructions: Please read these entire webpages.  Look on the left-hand side of the page for the “Chemistry and Compounds” heading.  In the links under this section, you will find detailed examples of complexes and reactions for each Group 2 metal.  These materials also cover subunits 7.2.1 through 7.2.4.
     
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7.2.1 Reactivity   - Reading: Chemguide: “Reactions of the Group 2 Elements with Water” and “Reactions of the Group 2 Elements with Air or Oxygen” Links: Chemguide: “Reactions of the Group 2 Elements with Water” (HTML) and “Reactions of the Group 2 Elements with Air or Oxygen” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these entire webpages for detailed information on Group 2 metal reactions.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

7.2.2 Salts Formed with Halides   7.2.3 Salts Formed with Oxides, Hydroxides, and Oxoacids   7.2.4 Hydration of Group 2 Elements   7.2.5 Ligands of Group 2 Elements   7.2.6 Grignard Reagents   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Reactions of Alkyl Halides with Reducing Metals” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Reactions of Alkyl Halides with Reducing Metals” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for information on Grignard reagents. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.3 Group 3 Elements   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 13: The Boron Family” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 13: The Boron Family” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and then attempt the problems.  This material also covers subunits 7.3.1 and 7.3.2. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
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  • Reading: WebElements: “Boron,” “Aluminum,” “Gallium,” “Indium,” and “Thallium” Links: WebElements: “Boron,” “Aluminum,” “Gallium,” “Indium,” and “Thallium” (HTML)
     
    Note: All the resources above are in HTML format.
     
    Instructions: Please read these entire webpages.  Look on the left-hand side of the page for the “Chemistry and Compounds” heading.  In the links under this section, you will find detailed examples of complexes, reactions, reduction potentials, and oxidation states for each boron group metal.  These materials also cover subunits 7.3.2 through 7.3.5.
     
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7.3.1 Oxidation States   - Reading: Wikipedia: “List of Oxidation States of the Elements” Link: Wikipedia: “List of Oxidation States of the Elements” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage, which provides a list of the common oxidation states of all the periodic table elements, including those of the boron group.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

7.3.2 Reactivity   7.3.3 Hydrides and Halides of Boron   Note: Recall from organic chemistry that boron-containing complexes, such as sodium borohydride, are commonly used to reduce carbonyls through hydride donation.  

7.3.4 Halides of Other Group 3 Elements   7.3.5 Oxides, Oxoacids, Oxanions, and Hydroxides of Group 3 Elements   7.4 Group 4 Elements   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 14: The Carbon Family” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 14: The Carbon Family” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and then attempt the problems. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
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  • Reading: WebElements: “Carbon,” “Silicon,” “Germanium,” “Tin,” and “Lead” Links: WebElements: “Carbon,” “Silicon,” “Germanium,” “Tin,” and “Lead” (HTML)
     
    Note: All the resources above are available in HTML format.
     
    Instructions: Please read these entire webpages.  Look on the left-hand side of the page for the “Chemistry and Compounds” heading.  In the links under this section, you will find detailed examples of complexes, reactions, and bond enthalpies for each carbon group metal.  These materials also cover subunits 7.4.1 through 7.4.3.
     
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7.4.1 Bond Enthalpy   7.4.2 Carbon and Silicon Halides   - Reading: Chemguide: “The Chlorides of Carbon, Silicon and Lead” Link: Chemguide: “The Chlorides of Carbon, Silicon and Lead” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for information on the synthesis and properties of carbon, silicon, and lead chlorides.
 
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7.4.3 Carbon and Silicon Oxides and Oxacids   - Reading: Chemguide: “The Oxides of Group 4” Link: Chemguide: “The Oxides of Group 4” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for information on the synthesis and properties of Group 4 oxides.
 
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7.5 Group 5 Elements   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 15: The Nitrogen Family” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 15: The Nitrogen Family” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and then attempt the problems. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: WebElements: “Nitrogen,” “Phosphorus,” “Arsenic,” “Antimony,” and “Bismuth” Links: WebElements: “Nitrogen,” “Phosphorus,” “Arsenic,” “Antimony,” and “Bismuth” (HTML)
     
    Note: All the materials above are available in HTML format.
     
    Instructions: Please read these entire webpages.  Look on the left-hand side of the page for the “Chemistry and Compounds” heading.  In the links under this section, you will find detailed examples of complexes and reactions for each nitrogen group metal.  These materials also cover subunits 7.5.1 through 7.5.3.
     
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7.5.1 Trihydrides of Group 5 Elements   7.5.2 Halides and Oxoacids of Group of 5 Elements   7.5.3 Nitrogen and Oxygen Compounds   7.6 Group 6 Elements   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 16: The Oxygen Family” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 16: The Oxygen Family” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and then attempt the problems. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: WebElements: “Oxygen,” “Sulfur,” “Selenium,” “Tellurium,” and “Polonium” Links: WebElements: “Oxygen,” “Sulfur,” “Selenium,” “Tellurium,” and “Polonium” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these entire webpages.  Look on the left-hand side of the page for the “Chemistry and Compounds” heading.  In the links under this section, you will find detailed examples of complexes and reactions for each oxygen group metal.  These materials also cover subunits 7.6.1 through 7.6.3.
     
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7.6.1 Compounds Formed from Oxygen and Sulfur   7.6.2 Compounds Formed from Halides with Oxygen and Sulfur   7.6.3 Oxacids of Sulfur   7.7 Group 7 Elements: Halogens   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 17: The Halogens” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Group 17: The Halogens” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and then attempt the problems. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
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  • Reading: WebElements: “Fluorine,” “Chlorine,” “Bromine,” “Iodine,” and “Astatine” Links: WebElements: “Fluorine,” “Chlorine,” “Bromine,” “Iodine,” and “Astatine” (HTML)
     
    Note: All the materials above are available in HTML format.
     
    Instructions: Please read these entire webpages.  Look on the left-hand side of the page for the “Chemistry and Compounds” heading.  In the links under this section, you will find detailed examples of complexes and reactions for each oxygen group metal.  These materials also cover subunit 7.7.3.
     
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7.7.1 Dihalides (i.e., I2, Cl2, etc.)   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Interhalogen” Link: Wikipedia: “Interhalogen”  (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage, which provides a description of several heterogenous interhalogens.  The section “Summary of Known Interhalogens” offers information on the homogenous interhalogens (F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2).
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

7.7.2 Charge Transfer Properties   Note: Charge transfer properties occur when electrons move from the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) of a donor to the LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) of an acceptor.  Charge transfers are responsible for many of the colors found in inorganic structures.  

7.7.3 Oxacids and Oxides of Group 7 Elements   - Reading: Everyscience: “Halogen Oxides and Oxo-Acids” Link: Everyscience: “Halogen Oxides and Oxo-Acids” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for a listing of halogen oxoacids and examples of halogen oxoacid reactions.
 
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