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CHEM107: Inorganic Chemistry

Unit 5: Solid State Chemistry   Solid state chemistry studies the behavior of a very large aggregation of atoms that form crystals and solid networks.  Recall from molecular orbital theory that electrons in a molecule populate distinct orbitals located at distinct energy levels.  Electrons populate the low-energy orbitals first.  These electrons can be excited into high-energy orbitals by heat or absorption of light.  In large aggregations of atoms, such as in a solid network, low-energy orbitals are so close (in terms of energy levels) and numerous that they form a continuous band of orbitals.  Electrons can easily move from one orbital to another within this band.  In solid networks, the majority of the electrons populate a single band (known as the valence band), which is the equivalent of all the low-energy orbitals of molecules.  As electrons in single molecules can be excited into higher-energy orbitals, electrons in the valence band can be excited into the high energy band (called the conductive band).  The difference in energy between the valence and conductive band is called “band gap energy”; different materials can have very different band gap energies.  You must understand how the band gap is formed and how electrons can move from one band to another in order to comprehend such properties as electrical conductivity and heat conduction in materials.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 7 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 5.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 5.4: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.5: 1 hour

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to: - Explain the basic concepts of band theory. - Differentiate between insulators and conductors in reference to band theory. - Differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. - Differentiate between the extrinsic p- and n-type semiconductors. - Differentiate between low and high temperatures superconductors.

5.1 Band Theory   - Lecture: Academic Earth: MIT OpenCourseWare: Dr. Donald R. Sadoway: “Metallic Bonding, Band Theory, Band Gaps” Link: Academic Earth: MIT OpenCourseWare: Dr. Donald R. Sadoway: “Metallic Bonding, Band Theory, Band Gaps” (Adobe Flash)
 
Also available in:
iTunes or mp4
 
Instructions: Please watch this entire video (approximately 50 minutes) for a greater understanding of band theory.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Adelaide: “Solid-State Band Theory” Link: University of Adelaide: “Solid-State Band Theory” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for a brief discussion on band theory.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Band Theory of Metals and Insulators” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Band Theory of Metals and Insulators” (HTML or PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and then attempt the problems.  This material also covers subunit 5.3. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Georgia State University: “Band Theory of Solids” Link: Georgia State University: “Band Theory of Solids” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for a slightly different approach to band theory.  Also, please click both semiconductor links. This material also covers subunits 5.3 and 5.4.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.2 Metals and Alloys   - Reading: The Pennsylvania State University: “Metals and Alloys” Link: The Pennsylvania State University: “Metals and Alloys” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for detailed information of the structures and bonding properties of metals and alloys.  The topics of coordination and conductivity are also discussed.
 
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5.3 Insulators   5.4 Semiconductors   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Band Theory of Semiconductors” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Band Theory of Semiconductors” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and then attempt the problems. You can also view this material in PDF. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.5 Intrinsic and Extrinsic   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Intrinsic Semiconductors” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Intrinsic Semiconductors” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and then attempt the problems. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Extrinsic Semiconductors” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Extrinsic Semiconductors” (HTML or PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and then attempt the problems. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.6 p-Type and n-Type   - Reading: Wikipedia: “P-Type Semiconductor”  Link: Wikipedia: “P-Type Semiconductor” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for information on doping and p-type superconductors.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

5.7 Superconductors   - Reading: Chemistry Explained: “Superconductors” Link: Chemistry Explained: “Superconductors” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for an overview of semiconductors.  This material also covers subunit 5.7.2.
 
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5.7.1 Low Temperature   - Reading: University of Bristol: Ben Truscott: “What Is Low-Temperature Superconductivity?” Link: University of Bristol: Ben Truscott: “What Is Low-Temperature Superconductivity?” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for information on the nature of superconductivity. 
 
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  • Reading: University of Bristol: Ben Truscott: “Which Elements Are Low-Temperature Superconductors?” Link: University of Bristol: Ben Truscott: “Which Elements Are Low-Temperature Superconductors?” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for examples of elemental superconductors. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.7.2 High Temperature   - Reading: Wikipedia: “High-Temperature Superconductivity” Link: Wikipedia: “High-Temperature Superconductivity” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for information on the nature of high-temperature superconductivity and for examples of high-temperature superconductors.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).