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CHEM107: Inorganic Chemistry

Unit 4: Ionic Solids   Ionic solids take on specific three-dimensional structures based on the size of the atoms.  In this unit, we will see the similarities and differences between these structures.  We will first look at the unit cell and then transition into more complex packing patterns.  

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 5.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.2: 1 hours

☐    Subunit 4.3: 1 hours

☐    Subunit 4.4: 1 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to: - Determine the nature of cubic and hexagonal crystal lattices. - Differentiate between body- and face-centered unit cells. - Differentiate between tetrahedral and octahedral interstitial holes. - Examine the effect of metal radii on the nature of the structure of alloys.

4.1 The Packing of Spheres and the Unit Cell   - Reading: University of Massachusetts, Lowell: Dr. Nancy De Luca: “Crystalline Solids” Link: University of Massachusetts, Lowell: Dr. Nancy De Luca: “Crystalline Solids” (HTML and PowerPoint)
 
Instructions: Please scroll down the page until you reach October 19 & 21 under Class Date.  Under the Topics heading, click the links for the Crystalline Solids text and PowerPoint presentation.  Please read these entire documents to gain an overview of crystals and ionic solids.  These materials also cover subunits 4.1 through 4.4. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

 *Note: Unit cells are the basis of discussion of ionic solids. 
They are the smallest repeating unit structure within a solid.  *

4.1.1 Cubic Close Packing   - Reading: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Cubic Closest Packing” Link: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Cubic Closest Packing” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of cubic close packing.
 
Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission by Steven Watkins.  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • Reading: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Coordination in CCP” Link: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Coordination in CCP” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of cubic close packing.
     
    Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission by Steven Watkins.  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.2 Hexagonal Close Packing   - Reading: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Hexagonal Closest Packing” Link: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Hexagonal Closest Packing” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of hexagonal close packing.
 
Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission by Steven Watkins.  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Coordination in HCP” Link: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Coordination in HCP” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of hexagonal close packing.
     
    Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission by Steven Watkins.  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Oxford University: Dr. S. J. Heyes: “Close-Packing of Spheres” Link: Oxford University: Dr. S. J. Heyes: “Close-Packing of Spheres” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire section.  This material provides graphical representations of cubic and hexagonal close packing.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.3 Interstitial Holes   - Reading: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Tetrahedral Interstices” Link: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Tetrahedral Interstices” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of tetrahedral holes.
 
Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission by Steven Watkins.  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Octahedral Interstices” Link: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Octahedral Interstices” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of octahedral holes.
     
    Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission by Steven Watkins.  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Oxford University: Dr. S. J. Heyes: “Location of Interstitial Holes in Close-Packed Structures” Link: Oxford University: Dr. S. J. Heyes: “Location of Interstitial Holes in Close-Packed Structures” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire section.  This material provides graphical representations of tetrahedral and octahedral holes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2 Noncubic Close Packing   4.2.1 Simple Cubic   - Reading: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Simple Cubic” Link: Louisiana State University: Steven F. Watkins: “Simple Cubic” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of simple cubic crystal lattice systems.
 
Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission by Steven Watkins.  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.2 Body-Centered Cubic   - Reading: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Body Centered Cubic” Link: Louisiana State University: Dr. Steven F. Watkins: “Body Centered Cubic” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of body-centered crystal lattice systems.
 
Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission by Steven Watkins.  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.3 Metallic Radii   4.4 Packing of Alloys    Note: Alloys are structures containing more than one metal, such as brass (composed of copper and zinc), or a metal with certain nonmetals, such as steel (composed of iron and carbon).