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CHEM107: Inorganic Chemistry

Unit 3: Bonding in Crystal Solids   Molecules that consist of charged ions with opposite charges are called “ionic.” These ionic compounds are generally solids with high melting points whose solutions conduct electrical current.  Ionic compounds are generally formed from metals and nonmetal elements.  The strength of chemical bonds you have encountered so far—mostly in organic chemistry—can be easily estimated by taking a look at the atoms involved.  For example, an isolated C=C has a bond energy of 614 KJ/mol.  In crystal solids, the strength of the ionic bonds is much more complex to evaluate than in organic molecules because many parameters, such as the charge, the size of its ions, and the geometry of the crystal need to be taken into consideration.  This ionic bond energy is known as “lattice energy.” You will learn how to calculate the lattice energy in this unit.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 2.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 1.0 hour

☐    Subunit 3.2: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 0.25 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 1.0 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to: - Determine unit cell structure by using the seven categories of Bravais unit cells. - Differentiate between amorphous and crystalline solids. - Identify the five types of solids. - Estimate crystal lattice energy by using the Born-Haber cycle.

3.1 Crystal Systems   - Reading: Purdue University: Dr. George M. Bodner: “Unit Cells” Link: Purdue University: Dr. George M. Bodner: “Unit Cells” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of unit cells and the types of inorganic crystal structures.  Also, please attempt the Face Centered-Cubic Structure Learning Activity.  This material also covers subunits 3.1, 4.1, and 4.3.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.2 Solid State Structures of Crystal Lattices   - Reading: NDT Resource Center: “Solid State Structure” Link: NDT Resource Center: “Solid State Structure” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of types of inorganic solids.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Friends School Chemistry: Ken Drews: “Solid State Structures” Link: Friends School Chemistry: Ken Drews: “Solid State Structures” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of the types of inorganic solids, bonds, and intermolecular forces.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.3 Atomic Size Revisited—Ionic Radii and Real Crystals   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Ionic Radius” Link: Wikipedia: “Ionic Radius” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of ionic radii with regard to crystal lattices.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

3.4 Lattice Energy and the Born-Haber Cycle   - Reading: University of Waterloo: Dr. Peter Chieh: “Lattice Energy” Link: University of Waterloo: Dr. Peter Chieh: “Lattice Energy” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire page and then attempt the problems. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Penn State University, Erie: Dr. Alan J. Jircitano: “Electrons in Molecules” Link: Penn State University, Erie: Dr. Alan J. Jircitano: “Electrons in Molecules” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire page for a Born-Haber cycle example using sodium chloride. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.