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CHEM107: Inorganic Chemistry

Unit 2: Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds   This unit will teach you the strengths and weaknesses of valence bond theory, crystal field theory, and molecular orbital theory in describing the bonding in coordination compounds and metal complex ions.  In the process of discussing these theories, you will learn why certain complex ions have certain colors.  The molecular orbital theory can explain why metal carbonyl compounds, such as [Co(CO)6], are often colorless, whereas halogen ligands often form complexes that are brightly colored, such as fluoride ions in the cobalt complex [CoF6]3-.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 11.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 2.0 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 2.0 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 0.25 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6: 3.0 hours

☐    Subunit 2.7: 1.5 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to: - Explain valence bond theory. - Draw Lewis dot structures. - Determine the electronic and geometric structure of a given molecule. - Provide names and formulas for inorganic compounds. - Compare and contrast the bonding theories of valence bond theory, VSEPR theory, molecular orbital theory, and crystal/ligand field theory as well as determine which theory is appropriate for a given compound/complex.

2.1 Valence Bond Theory   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Valence Bond Theory” Link: UC Davis: Chemwiki: “Valence Bond Theory” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and also attempt the problems.  Be sure to watch the embedded video and also click the links just before it. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Waterloo: Dr. Peter Chieh: “Valence Bond Theory and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals” Link: University of Waterloo: Dr. Peter Chieh: “Valence Bond Theory and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and also attempt the problems offered. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Academic Earth: MIT OpenCourseWare: Dr. Christopher Cummins: “Valence Bond Theory” Link: Academic Earth: MIT OpenCourseWare: Dr. Christopher Cummins: “Valence Bond Theory” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Also available in:
    iTunes or mp4
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire video (approximately 44 minutes) for a greater understanding of valence bond theory.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  

2.2 Lewis/Electron Dot Structures   - Reading: Wikibooks: “Lewis Dot Structures” Link: Wikibooks: “Lewis Dot Structures” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for a basic understanding of Lewis dot structures.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikibooks version of this article here (HTML).

  • Reading: Boise State University: Dr. Richard Banks: “Bonding” Link: Boise State University: Dr. Richard Banks: “Bonding” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to learn about bond types.  Also, please click the links to read the six “Drawing Electron-Dot Formulas” sections and attempt the practice problems.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Boise State University: Dr. Richard Banks: “Electron-Dot Formulas” Link: Boise State University: Dr. Richard Banks: “Electron-Dot Formulas” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please follow the tutorial links for tips on drawing Lewis dot structures.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: University of Florida: Dr. Philip J. Brucat: “Lewis Dot Structures (Multiple Choice)” Link: University of Florida: Dr. Philip J. Brucat: “Lewis Dot Structures (Multiple Choice)” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: This webpage presents a few exercises on drawing Lewis dot structures.  Please follow the written instructions to conduct the exercises. 
     
    Term of use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3 Hybridization   - Reading: Boise State University: Dr. Richard Banks: “Bonding and Hybridization” Link: Boise State University: Dr. Richard Banks: “Bonding and Hybridization” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to learn about orbital hybridization, molecular shapes, and Lewis dot structures. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.4 VSEPR Theory   - Reading: Oklahoma State University: Dr. John I. Gelder: “Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory” Link: Oklahoma State University: Dr. John I. Gelder: “Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and then click the electron-pair geometry links for details on bond angles and molecular geometries.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 

  • Reading: Wikibooks: “VSEPR Theory” Link: Wikibooks: “VSEPR Theory” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to learn about VSPER theory and the AXE method.
     
    Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikibooks version of this article here (HTML).

2.5 Nomenclature   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Nomenclature of Coordination Complexes” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Nomenclature of Coordination Complexes” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire page and then attempt the problems. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States license.

  • Lecture: iTunesU: Ontario Local Schools: “Naming Inorganic Compounds” Link: iTunesU: Ontario Local Schools: “Naming Inorganic Compounds” (iTunes Video)
     
    Instructions: You might be asked to launch iTunes.  Please watch this entire video (approximately 53 minutes) for information on how to name simple inorganic compounds.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Boise State University: Dr. Richard Banks: “Nomenclature Tutorial for Concepts of Chemistry” Link: Boise State University: Dr. Richard Banks: “Nomenclature Tutorial for Concepts of Chemistry”(HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for tips on drawing naming inorganic complexes. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Boise State University: Dr. Richard Banks: “Naming Inorganic Compounds” Link: Boise State University: Dr. Richard Banks: “Naming Inorganic Compounds” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for tips on drawing naming inorganic complexes.  Additional anion and cation examples are provided.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6 Theories of Bonding   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Metals, Tetrahedral and Octahedral” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Metals, Tetrahedral and Octahedral” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding of molecular orbital theory. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Imperial College: Dr. Wyn Locke: “An Introduction to Molecular Orbital Theory” Link: Imperial College: Dr. Wyn Locke: "An Introduction to Molecular Orbital Theory” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage.  Also, please click the links listed in the “Orbitals for Selected Molecules” section for more examples.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Molecular Orbital Theory” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Molecular Orbital Theory” (HTML or PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to gain an understanding molecular orbital theory. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Wikibooks: “Molecular Orbital Diagram” Link: Wikibooks: “Molecular Orbital Diagram” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to learn about molecular orbital diagrams.
     
    Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikibooks version of this article here (HTML).
     

  • Lecture: Academic Earth: MIT OpenCourseWare: Dr. Christopher Cummins: “Molecular Orbital Theory” Link: Academic Earth: MIT OpenCourseWare: Dr. Christopher Cummins: “Molecular Orbital Theory” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Also available in:
    iTunes or mp4
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire video (approximately 49 minutes) for a general understanding of molecular orbital theory and how it differs from valence bond theory.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 license.

  • Lecture: Academic Earth: MIT OpenCourseWare: Dr. Christopher Cummins: “Molecular Orbital Theory for Diatomic Molecules” Link: Academic Earth: MIT OpenCourseWare: Dr. Christopher Cummins: “Molecular Orbital Theory for Diatomic Molecules” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Also available in:
    iTunes or mp4
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire video (approximately 52 minutes) for a greater understanding of molecular orbital theory with regard to diatomic molecules.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.7 Crystal/Ligand Field Theory   - Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Crystal Field Theory” Link: UC Davis: Chemwiki: “Crystal Field Theory” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire page and then attempt the problems.  Be sure to watch the embedded video and also click the links offered before it. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of the West Indies: Dr. Robert Lancashire: “Ligand Field Theory” Link: University of the West Indies: Dr. Robert Lancashire: “Ligand Field Theory” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and also use your mouse to change the orientation of the d-orbital lobes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “High Spin and Low Spin” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “High Spin and Low Spin” (HTML or PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage and then attempt the problems. You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States license.

  • Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Spectrochemical Series” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki: “Spectrochemical Series” (HTML or PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage for a list of weak- and strong-field ligands.  This material also covers subunit 7.7.2 (the halogens are considered weak-field ligands). You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.