Loading...

CHEM104: Organic Chemistry II

Unit 10: Molecules of Biological Importance   The human body functions through thousands of chemical reactions happening every minute, either sequentially or simultaneously.  The human body could be seen as a synthetic chemist constantly at work, overseeing the synthesis of proteins, oxidation of carbohydrates, hydrolysis of peptide bonds during digestion, etc.  In this unit,you will learn how the most basic rules and mechanisms of chemical reactions also apply to biological molecules.  

Unit 10 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 13 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 10.1: 3.25 hours

☐    Subunit 10.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 10.3: 5.25 hours ☐    Reading: 2 hours

☐    Web Media: 3.25 hours

☐    Subunit 10.4: 2.5 hours

Unit10 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Describe and define carbohydrates. - Draw carbohydrate structures using Fischer projections. - Describe the reactivity of glucose. - Describe cyclic forms of monosaccharides. - Explain main differences among mono-, di-, and polysaccharides. - Describe the structure of detergents, fatty acids, waxes, and phospholipids. - Describe the structure and biological role of terpenes, steroids, and lipid soluble vitamins. - Define the isoelectric point of proteins. - Give the definition of peptide bonds, amino acids, and proteins. - Describe proteins in terms of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure. - Describe nucleotide bases. - Explain the difference between RNA and DNA.

10.1 Carbohydrates   - Reading: Michigan State University: Professor William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Carbohydrates” Link: Michigan State University: Professor William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Carbohydrates” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
“Carbohydrates” chapter. Carbohydrates are the largest group of
organic compounds in living systems.  Carbohydrates are the
photosynthetic product when green plants use the sun’s energy to
make their food.  Carbohydrates are important, because they provide
energy for carrying out metabolic in both plant and animal systems.
 The topic of carbohydrates coves glucose, drawing carbohydrates
(Fischer Projectionslearned in
[CHEM103](http://www.saylor.org/courses/chem103/)), reactivity of
monosaccharides, aldoses, ketoses,and anomers, disaccharides, and
polysaccharides.  

 Reading and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours to
complete.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.  
  • Web Media: YouTube: Freelanceteach’s “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (1)" Link: YouTube: Freelanceteach’s “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (1)" (YouTube)   
     
    Instructions:  Please click on the link above, and watch this video (#1) in its entirety (10:12 minutes) to start learning about carbohydrates. This video covers an introduction to carbohydrates, otherwise known as sugars.  You will learn how to distinguish between D and L sugars as an understanding of ‘epimers.’
     
    Viewing this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above. 

  • Web Media: YouTube: Freelanceteach’s “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (2);” “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (3);” “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (4);” “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (5);” “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (6);” and “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (7)” Links: YouTube: Freelanceteach’s “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (2);” “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (3);” “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (4);” “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (5);” “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (6);” and “Organic Chemistry: Carbohydrates (7)" (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please note that these video lectures are optional.  For a more in-depth discussion of carbohydrates, you may choose to click on the links above and watch lectures 2-7.  Each video lecture runs from 10-11 minutes with the exception of Lecture 7, which is 4 minutes.   This material is not required for successful completion of the course.
     
    Viewing these optional lectures should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

10.2 Lipids   - Reading: Michigan State University: Professor William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Lipids” Link: Michigan State University: Professor William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Lipids” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire webpage.  Lipids are naturally occurring organic compounds, important in making soaps, detergents, and many other useful substances.  All lipids are soluble in nonpolar solvents, yet they are very structurally diverse.  The topics covered in this subunit on lipids include soaps and detergents, fats and oils, waxes, phospholipids, prostaglandins, terpenes, steroids, lipid soluble vitamins, and biosynthetic mechanisms.

 Reading and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours to
complete.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above. 

10.3 Amino Acids and Proteins   - Reading: Michigan State University: Professor William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Proteins, Peptides, and Amino Acids” and “Peptides & Proteins” Links: Michigan State University: Professor William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Proteins, Peptides, and Amino Acids” (HTML) and “Peptides & Proteins” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the “Proteins, Peptides, and Amino Acids” and
“Peptides & Proteins” chapters linked above.  Proteins are organic
compounds that are important to all living cells.  Proteins are made
of amino acids and are necessary for living cells to function.  They
are a part of our skin, hair, DNA, just to name a few.  When the
amine and carboxylic acid groups in an amino acid join together,
they form an amide.  Many of these amide units (amino acids) linked
together form a peptide bond which makes up proteins.  In this
subunit, we will learn about alpha amino acids, isoelectric point,
reactivity, synthesis of amino acids, peptides, primary structure of
peptides, secondary and Tertiary Structure of Peptides, and
quaternary structure of proteins.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above. 

10.4 Nucleic Acids   - Reading: Michigan State University: Professor William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Nucleic Acids” Link: Michigan State University: Professor William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry:Nucleic Acids” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire chapter linked here.  DNA and RNA, the two nucleic acids, are the basic building blocks of life.  Living cells are able to replicate using DNA as a blueprint.  Each person’s DNA is unique and can be used to identify that person.  The exceptions are in the cases of identical twins that have the same DNA.  Each DNA and RNA molecule is made of a sugar, a base pair, and phosphate.  DNA and RNA have three of the same bases and one that is different. In this subunit, we will learn about nucleotide bases, DNA, and RNA, secondary structure of DNA, double helix, and biological activity of acids.

 Reading and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours to
complete.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above. 
  • Reading: University of California, Davis: UC Davis Chem Wiki: "Nucleic Acids" Link:  University of California, Davis: UC Davis Chem Wiki: "Nucleic Acids" (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and readthe tutorial webpage to learn more about the two types of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) in living cells that carry the genetic code of information for cell replication.

    Readingand note-taking should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.