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CHEM102: General Chemistry II

Unit 3: Acids and Bases   You probably know that when you add vinegar to baking soda, you create a wonderful foaming substance.  Some of you might have performed this experiment in elementary school, when creating a “volcano” effect, but we will now approach it as an example of an acid-base reaction.  In this unit, you will learn that acid-base chemistry is highly important, as the level of acidity or basicity in a given solution will affect the outcome of a reaction just as much as its concentration or temperature.  (It also gives us wonderful flashy explosions!)

3.1 Definitions of Acid and Base   - Reading: General Chemistry Virtual Textbook: Stephen Lower’s notes on Introduction to Acid Base Chemistry Link: General Chemistry Virtual Textbook: Stephen Lower’s notes on Introduction to Acid Base Chemistry (HTML)

 Also available in:  
 [ZIP file](http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/download.html)  

 Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title
*Introduction: What is an Acid? What is a Base?*to gain a general
understanding of distinguish between acids and bases.  This section
provides visual clues to determine whether a substance is acidic or
basic.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 2.5 Generic
license](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/).

3.1.1 Arrhenius   - Reading: Salisbury University: Dr. Rieck’s notes on Arrhenius Acids and Bases Link: Salisbury University: Dr. Rieck’s notes on Arrhenius Acids and Bases (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this section to gain a general understanding of Arrhenius’s definition of acids and bases.  

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3.1.2 Bronsted-Lowry   - Reading: Salisbury University: Dr. Rieck’s notes on Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Link: Salisbury University: Dr. Rieck’s notes on Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases(HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this section beginning to gain a general understanding of Brønsted and Lowry’s definition of acids and bases.

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3.1.3 Lewis   - Reading: General Chemistry Virtual Textbook: Stephen Lower’s notes on Lewis Acids and Bases Link: General Chemistry Virtual Textbook: Stephen Lower’s notes on Lewis Acids and Bases (HTML)
 
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Instructions: Please read this section to gain a general understanding of Lewis’ definition of acids and bases.

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 2.5 Generic
license](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/).

3.1.4 Amphoterism   Note: Water is the classic example of an amphoteric.  This characteristic in part explains why water essential to life.

  • Reading: Clackamas Community College: Eden Francis’ notes on Amphoterism Link: Clackamas Community College: Eden Francis’ notes on Amphoterism (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title Amphoterismto gain a general understanding of this very important concept.
     
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3.2 Water Dissociation Constant, pH, and pOH   - Reading: General Chemistry Virtual Textbook: Stephen Lower’s notes on The Dissociation of Water Link: General Chemistry Virtual Textbook: Stephen Lower’s notes on The Dissociation of Water (HTML)

 Also available in:  
 [ZIP file](http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/download.html)  

 Instructions: Please read this section to gain a general
understanding of how acids and bases behave in water solutions and
how to quantitatively measure acidity.  This section provides an
introduction to pH and pOH that will be useful in subsequent
sections.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 2.5 Generic
license](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/).

3.2.1 Calculating pH and pOH   Note: pH + pOH = 14, when the solution is under standard conditions. (Remember what standard conditions are?  Think back to CHEM101!)

  • Reading: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Calculating pH and pOH Link: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Calculating pH and pOH (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this section, beginning with the title Defining and Using pH and pOH, to gain a general understanding of how to calculate the pH and pOH of acidic and basic solutions.  This section provides several example problems. Please take the time to memorize the equations and work through the problems.

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3.3 Strength of Acids and Bases   - Reading: University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire: Warren Gallagher’s notes on Strength of Acids and Bases Link: University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire: Warren Gallagher’s notes on Strength of Acids and Bases (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title
*Elaboration – Acid Base Strength*, which will provide you with a
general definition of acid base strength and how to quantitatively
distinguish between strong and weak acids.    

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  • Reading: University of Waterloo: Chung Chieh’s notes on Weak Acids and Bases Link: University of Waterloo Chung Chieh’s notes on Weak Acids and Bases (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title Weak Acids and Basesto gain a general understanding of how to calculate the pH and pOH of weak acids and bases.

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  • Reading: University of Waterloo: Chung Chieh’s notes on Strong Acids and Bases Link: University of Waterloo Chung Chieh’s notes on Strong Acids and Bases (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read this section to gain a general understanding of how to calculate
    the pH and pOH of strong acids and bases.

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3.4 Buffer Systems   3.4.1 Titration   - Reading: University of Waterloo: Chung Chieh’s notes on Buffer Solutions and Titrations Link: University of Waterloo Chung Chieh’s notes on Buffer Solutions and Titration (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this section to learn about buffers and the importance of buffer solutions in chemistry.  This section also provides a definition of titration in addition to several example problems that will teach you how to solve problems involving titrations.

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3.4.2 Henderson-Hasselbach (H-H) Equation   Note: The H-H equation is essentially a combination of pH and pKa equations from strong and weak acids.  Be sure to remember which conjugate base pair is on the top part of the fraction and which is on the bottom.

  • Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki’s “Henderson-Hasselbach Approximation” Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki’s “Henderson-Hasselbach Approximation” (PDF)

    Instructions:  Please read the entire page, which explains how to calculate the pH and pOH of buffer solutions.  Note that this equation is derived from the equilibrium equation for acids.  There are five problems with solutions ate the end of the reading to help you assess your mastery of the material.  This material should take approximately 1.5 hours to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  UC Davis ChemWiki by University of California, Davis is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.

3.4.3 Polyprotic Acids   - Reading: University of Waterloo: Chung Chieh’s notes on Buffer Polyprotic Acids Link: University of Waterloo Chung Chieh’s notes on Polyprotic Acids (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this section to gain a general understanding of polyprotic acids.  This section also provides several examples of how to determine the pH of polyprotic acids.

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