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BIO407: Immunology

Unit 7: Failures of the Immune System   **Even as the human immune system has evolved and developed complex defensive mechanisms against pathogens, pathogens themselves have evolved and developed new means of evading the immune system.  In some cases, the adaptations of pathogens are such that they are extremely infectious, virulent, and sometimes even fatal. 

We are also threatened by health hazards posed by our own immune system.  The immune system can, for example, respond inappropriately to its own cells (as in the case of autoimmune diseases) or to innocuous foreign cells (as in the case of allergies and other hypersensitivity diseases).  This unit will cover some clinical and medical aspects of the immune system as it relates to immune-system dysfunction. **

Unit 7 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 5 hours to complete. ☐    Unit 7 Introduction

☐    Subunits 7.1 - 7.3: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.4.7: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.4.8: 1 hour

☐    Unit 5 Assessment: 0.5 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which pathogens overcome host defenses.
  • Distinguish between the processes of inherited and acquired immunodeficiency.
  • Answer specific questions about the consequences of these failures of the immune system.

7.1 Pathogenic Evasion of Immune System   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Pathogens” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Pathogens” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read section 11-1 along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 7.1.
 
This resource will take approximately 40 minutes to complete.

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7.1.1 Antigenic Drift and Shift   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 7.1.

7.1.2 Latency   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 7.1.

7.1.3 Resistance to Effector Mechanisms   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 7.1.

7.2 Immunodeficiency   - Lecture: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Mitzi Nagarkatti’s “Immunodeficiencies I and II" Link: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Mitzi Nagarkatti’s “Immunodeficiencies I and II" (Adobe Flash, MP3 or Quicktime)

 Instructions: In the Immunology folder, click on the
“Immunodeficiencies” lectures.  You have the choice of watching this
on your computer with audio and slideshow or downloading the
lectures to an MP3 player.  This will cover the material in 7.2.  

 This resource will take approximately 40 minutes to complete.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Center for Disease Control's "Basic Information about HIV and AIDS," "Basic Statistics" and "A Guide to Primary Care of People with HIV/AIDS" Link: Center for Disease Control's "Basic Information about HIV and AIDS," "Basic Statistics" and "A Guide to Primary Care of People with HIV/AIDS" (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the first page in its entirety along with all associated figures. The second reading takes you through AIDs diagnosis category. For the last reading, scroll down to the link for the guide to primary care of people with HIV/AIDs, and read Chapter 5: “Antiretroviral Therapy.” 

    This resource will take approximately 90 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.2.1 Inherited Immunodeficiency   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Inherited Immunodeficiency Diseases” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Inherited Immunodeficiency Diseases” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety along with all associated figures.
 
This resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.2.2 Acquired Immunodeficiency   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety along with all associated figures.
 
This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.3 Allergy and Hypersensitivity   - Lecture: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Prakash Nagarkatti’s “Tolerance” and “Autoimmunity” Link: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Prakash Nagarkatti’s “Tolerance” and “Autoimmunity” (Adobe Flash, MP3 or Quicktime)
 
Instructions: In the Immunology folder, click on the “Tolerance” and “Autoimmunity” lectures.  You have the choice of watching this on your computer with audio and slideshow or downloading the lectures to an MP3 player.  This will cover the material in 7.3-7.4.
 
This resource will take approximately 25 minutes to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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7.3.1 Antigen vs. Allergen   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “The Production of IgE” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “The Production of IgE” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read from the beginning of this page through section 12-2 along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 7.3.1-7.3.2.
 
This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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7.3.2 IgE-mediated Allergy   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 7.3.1.

7.3.3 Four Types of Allergies   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Effector Mechanisms in Allergic Reactions” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Effector Mechanisms in Allergic Reactions” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 7.3.3-7.3.5.
 
This resource will take approximately 50 minutes to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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7.3.4 Allergic Response Phases   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 7.3.3.

7.3.5 Treatment of Allergic Reaction   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 7.3.3.

7.3.6 Type II and III Hypersensitivity   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Hypersensitivity Diseases” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Hypersensitivity Diseases” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read sections 12-15 and 12-16 along with all associated figures.
 
This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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7.4 Autoimmunity   7.4.1 Self Antigens   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Autoimmune Responses” Link:  National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Autoimmune Responses” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 7.4.1-7.4.6.
 
This resource will take approximately 1.4 hours to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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7.4.2 Systemic vs. Organ-specific Diseases   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 7.4.1.

7.4.3 Epitope Spreading   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 7.4.1.

7.4.4 Immunologically Privileged Sites   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 7.4.1.

7.4.5 Genetic Basis   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 7.4.1.

7.4.6 Environmental Basis   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 7.4.1.

7.4.7 Tolerance Loss   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Self-Tolerance and Its Loss” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Self-Tolerance and Its Loss” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the introduction and final summary of this chapter.
 
This resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.

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7.4.8 Transplantation and Graft Rejection   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Responses to Alloantigens and Graft Rejection” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Responses to Alloantigens and Graft Rejection” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read through 13-20 along with all associated figures.
 
This resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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  • Lecture: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Prakash Nagarkatti’s “MHC – Genetics and Transplantation” I and II Link: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Prakash Nagarkatti’s “MHC – Genetics and Transplantation” I and II (Adobe Flash, MP3 or Quicktime)
     
    Instructions: In the Immunology folder, click on the “MHC- Genetics and Transplantation” lectures.  You have the choice of watching this on your computer with audio and slideshow or downloading the lectures to an MP3 player.
     
    This resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 7 Assessment   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation's "BIO407 Unit 7 Quiz" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "BIO407 Unit 7 Quiz" (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please take the quiz. When you have finished, check your work against the "BIO407 Unit 7 Quiz Answer Key." (PDF)
 
This assessment will take approximately 40 minutes to complete.