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BIO407: Immunology

Unit 6: Adaptive Immunity   Adaptive immunity is our last and most potent line of defense.  If it fails, we will inevitably succumb to infection.  Much of adaptive immunity relies upon two main processes: antibody production and cytotoxic cells.  If a given pathogen is so destructive that it requires the activation of adaptive immunity, it is important that our bodies remember it and are capable of recognizing it in case of future attack.  For this reason, we have memory cells that “remember” the same pathogen and, should that pathogen invade again, are able to mount a much faster defense against it.  Vaccines make use of this memory process in order to provide us with protection against many infections that we might not otherwise successfully fight.  

Unit 6 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 4.5 hours to complete.  ☐    Unit 6 Introduction

☐    Subunits 6.1 and 6.2: 1.75 hours

☐    Subunit 6.3: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunits 6.4 and 6.5: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 6.6: 0.5 hours

☐    Unit 6 Assessment: 0.75 hours

Unit6 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Answer questions, in some detail, about the means by which T and B cells are activated.
  • Answer questions about “immunological memory” including its initiation, maintenance, and advantages.

  • Lecture: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Jennifer Nyland’s “Cell-Cell Interactions in Immune Responses” Link: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr.  Jennifer Nyland’s “Cell-Cell Interactions in Immune Responses” (Adobe Flash, MP3 or Quicktime)
     
    Instructions: Click on the arrow of the Immunology folder to open it, then click on the “Cell-Cell Interactions” lecture.  You have the choice of watching this on your computer with audio and slideshow or downloading the lectures to an MP3 player.  This will introduce you to the material in Unit 6.
     
    This resource will take approximately 45 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.1 T Lymphocyte Activation   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “The Production of Armored T Cells” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “The Production of Armored T Cells” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read through section 8-5 along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 6.1-6.2.
 
This resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

6.1.1 Naive T Lymphocyte   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.1.

6.1.2 APC Interaction   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.1.

6.1.3 Co-stimulatory Molecules   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.1.

6.1.4 CD8 and CD4 Differentiation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.1.

6.1.5 Clonal Expansion   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.1.

6.2 Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes   6.2.1 Apoptosis Induction   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.1.

6.2.2 Fas Ligand   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.1.

6.2.3 TNF- ? (Tumor Necrosis Factor-?)   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.1.

6.2.4 Cytokine Release   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.1.

6.3 TH1 CD4+ T Lymphocyte   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Macrophage Activation by Armed CD4 TH1 Cells” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Macrophage Activation by Armed CD4 TH1 Cells” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 6.3.
 
This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

6.3.1 Macrophage Activation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.3.

6.3.2 Macrophage Differentiation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.3.

6.3.3 TNF-? and IFN-?   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.3.

6.3.4 Infected Cell Destruction   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.3.

6.4 TH2 CD4+ T Lymphocyte   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “B-Cell Activation” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “B-Cell Activation” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 6.4-6.5.
 
This resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

6.4.1 B Lymphocyte Activation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.4.

6.4.2 Interleukin Production   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.4.

6.4.3 Ig Isotype Switching   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.4.

6.5 B Lymphocytes and Adaptive Immunity   6.5.1 Activation of B Lymphocytes   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.4.

6.5.2 T Cell Dependent Activation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.4.

6.5.3 T Cell Independent Activation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.4.

6.5.4 Plasma B Cells   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.4.

6.5.5 Memory B Cells   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.4.

6.6 Immunological Memory   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Immunological Memory” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Immunological Memory” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 6.6.
 
This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete. 

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Science Direct: Vandana Kalia, Surojit Sarkar, Tania S. Gourley, Barry T. Rouse and Rafi Ahmed's "Differentiation of Memory B and T cells" Link: Science Direct: Vandana Kalia, Surojit Sarkar, Tania S. Gourley, Barry T. Rouse and Rafi Ahmed's "Differentiation of Memory B and T cells" (PDF)

    Instructions: To access the content, scroll down to the file titled "LTyLBmemoria." Read the text and study the associated figures.

    This resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.

6.6.1 Memory in B and T Lymphocytes   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.6.

6.6.2 Somatic Hypermutation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.6.

6.6.3 Primary vs. Secondary Response   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.6.

6.6.4 Isotype Switch   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 6.6.

Unit 6 Assessment   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation's "BIO407 Unit 6 Quiz" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "BIO407 Unit 6 Quiz" (PDF)

 Instructions: Please take the quiz. When you have finished, check
your work against the "[BIO407 Unit 6 Quiz Answer
Key](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/BIO407-Unit-6-Quiz-Answer-Key-FINAL.pdf)."
(PDF)  

 This assessment will take approximately 45 minutes to complete.