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BIO407: Immunology

Unit 5: Cell Signaling and Maturation   *The immune system (especially the adaptive immune system) relies upon many distinct pathways of communication all acting in synergy.  This unit will introduce the signaling processes that occur immediately after antigen recognition in order to initiate adaptive immunity.

The adaptive immune system relies not only on signaling, but also on cells’ ability to recognize and respond to an extraordinary number of different kinds of pathogens.  The body is able to produce cells that recognize a vast number of foreign objects through the process of lymphocyte maturation.  Most biologists explain this process through the clonal selection theory (covered in the reading for subunit 1.2 and revisited in this unit).  Although there are alternative explanations for the process of lymphocyte maturation, this unit will focus on the clonal selection theory to explain this phenomenon.   *

Unit 5 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 7.5 hours to complete.  ☐    Introduction to Unit 5

☐    Subunit 5.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2: 1.25 hours

☐    Subunit 5.3: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.4: 1.25 hours

☐    Subunit 5.5: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.6: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.7: 1 hour

☐    Unit 5 Assessment: 0.5 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the intracellular pathways and signaling cascades that result from antigen recognition.
  • Recognize and distinguish between major types of signaling pathways.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the processes of lymphocyte maturation for B and T cells as explained by the clonal-selection theory.

5.1 Antigen Recognition Signaling   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Antigen Receptor Structure and Signaling Pathways” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Antigen Receptor Structure and Signaling Pathways” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 5.1.
 
This resource will take approximately 90 minutes to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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  • Reading: Professor Michael R. Gold, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Cell Signaling Technology: "B Cell Receptor Signaling" Link: Professor Michael R. Gold, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Cell Signaling Technology: "Signaling Pathways: B Cell Receptor Signaling" (HTML)

    Instructions: Please study the figure and read the paragraph below it. Although the figure appears to be very complex, the text provides a succinct overview of B cell signaling.

    This resource will take approximately 20 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.1.1 Invariant Chain   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.1.

5.1.2 ITAMs (Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs)   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.1.

5.1.3 Co-Receptors   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.1.

5.1.4 Downstream Phosphorylation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.1.

5.1.5 NFAT (Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells)   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.1.

5.1.6 Agonist and Antagonist Peptides   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.1.

5.2 Main Signaling Pathways   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Other Signaling Pathways” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Other Signaling Pathways” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read from the beginning of this page through section
6-18, along with all associated figures.  This will cover the
material in 5.2.  
    
 This resource will take approximately 40 minutes to complete.   

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5.2.1 NF-?B (Nuclear Factor ?B)   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.2.

5.2.2 GPCR (G Protein Coupled Receptor) Family   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.2.

5.2.3 JAKs (Janus Kinases) and STATs (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription)   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.2.

5.2.4 TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) Family   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.2. Please disregard what this chapter says about TNF and listen to the following web resource:

  • Reading: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Jennifer Nyland's "Cytokines and Immunoregulation I" Link: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Jennifer Nyland's "Cytokines and Immunoregulation I" (Adobe Flash, MP3 or Wuicktime)

    Instructions: Click on the arrow of the Immunolog folder to open it, then click on the "Cytokines and immunoregulation I" lecture. You have the choice of watching this on your computer with audio and slideshow or downloading the lectures to an MP3 player. This will cover the material in Unit 4.3.

    This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

5.3 Common Origin of B and T Lymphocytes   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Generation of Lymphocytes” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Generation of Lymphocytes” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read from the beginning of this page through section 7-2.  This will cover the material in 5.3.
 
This resource should take 30 minutes to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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5.3.1 Hematopoietic Stem Cell   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.3.

5.3.2 Bone Marrow Development   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.3.

5.3.3 Lymphocyte Progenitor   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.3.

5.3.4 Stromal Cell Interaction   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.3.

5.4 B Lymphocyte Development   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Generation of Lymphocytes” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Generation of Lymphocytes” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read section 7-3 along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 5.4.
 
This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Jennifer Nyland's Cells of the Immune System: Adaptive to the End: "Cells of the Immune System and Antigen Recognition" Link: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Jennifer Nyland's Cells of the Immune System: Adaptive to the End: "Cells of the Immune System and Antigen Recognition" (Adobe Flash, MP3 or Quicktime)

    Instructions: Click on the arrow of the Immunology folder to open it, then click on the "Cells of the Immune System" lecture. You have the choice of watching this on your computer with audio and slideshow or downloading the lecture to an MP3 player. This will cover the material in subunit 5.4.

    This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

5.4.1 CXCL12 (Stromal cell-derived factor-1) and IL-7   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.4.

5.4.2 Peripheral Lymphoid Organs   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.4.

5.4.3 Pro-B Cell   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.4.

5.4.4 Pre-B Cell   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.4.

5.4.5 Immature B Cell   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.4.

5.4.6 Mature B Cell   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.4.

5.4.7 B Cell Surface Markers   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.4.

5.5 T Lymphocyte Development   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Generation of Lymphocytes” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Generation of Lymphocytes” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read sections 7-4 through 7-7 along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 5.5.
 
This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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5.5.1 Maturation in Thymus   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.5.

5.5.2 T Cell Surface Markers   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.5.

5.5.3 Double-Negative Thymocytes   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.5.

5.5.4 Natural Killer T Cell Development   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.5.

5.5.5 Double Positive Thymocytes   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.5.

5.5.6 Single Positive Thymocytes   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.5.

5.6 Antigen-Receptor Gene Rearrangement   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “T-Cell Receptor Gene Rearrangement” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “T-Cell Receptor Gene Rearrangement” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read section 4-11 along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 5.6.
 
This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

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5.6.1 Control of Lymphocyte Development   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.6.

5.6.2 V, D, and J Genetic Segments   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.6.

5.6.3 V(D)J Recombination in B Cell Receptor   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.6.

5.6.4 T Cell Receptor Gene Recombination   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.6.

5.7 Positive and Negative Selection   5.7.1 Positive Selection for CD4/CD8 T Cells   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Interaction with Self Antigens” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Interaction with Self Antigens” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read section 7-22 along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 5.7.1-5.7.2.
 
This resource will take approximately 20 minutes to complete.

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5.7.2 Positive Selection for Specificity   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 5.7.1.

5.7.3 Self Antigen Reaction and Negative Selection   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Interaction with Self Antigens” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Interaction with Self Antigens” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read section 7-25 along with all associated figures.
 
This resource will take approximately 20 minutes to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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5.7.4 Order and Specificity of Positive vs. Negative Selection   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Interaction with Self Antigens” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Interaction with Self Antigens” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read section 7-27 along with all associated figures.
 
This resource will take approximately 20 minutes to complete. 

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 5 Assessment   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation's "BIO407 Unit 5 Quiz" Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "BIO407 Unit 5 Quiz"

 Link: The Saylor Foundation's "[BIO407 Unit 5
Quiz](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/BIO407-Unit-5-Quiz-FINAL.pdf)"
(PDF)  

 Instructions: Please take the quiz. When you have finished, check
your work against the "[BIO407 Unit 5 Quiz Answer
Key](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/BIO407-Unit-5-Quiz-Answer-Key-FINAL.pdf)."
(PDF)  

 This assessment will take you approximately 30 minutes to
complete.