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BIO407: Immunology

Unit 2: Innate Immunity   In order to understand the processes of the immune system, you must first understand how infection occurs.  Infections begin where the inside of us has contact with the outside world. Individuals can acquire an infection via an airway, the skin, the digestive tract, or the reproductive tract.  Our innate immunity thus naturally begins in those areas.  Our first line of defense is the skin, which is an impenetrable barrier to almost all foreign invaders.  Infections often begin with a break in the skin.  We can also ingest or inhale an infectious agent or acquire it through sexual contact.  Innate defenses, however, are not just skin deep; we have many strong internal innate defenses as well.  Do remember, however, that since the innate immune system is non-specific, it reacts in the same way to every type of foreign invader.  Also remember that the innate response is available instantly but does not improve with a repeat infection with the same organism, as there is no memory in the innate immune system.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 4.66 hours to complete. ☐    Introduction to Unit 2: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunits 2.1 - 2.3: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 1.33 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 2.6: 1 hour

☐    Unit 2 Assessment: 0.33 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Recognize the cells and molecules involved in the innate immune response.
  • Answer questions about the complement pathway (initiators, triggers, early and late response, major molecules, and cells).
  • Answer questions about the roles of receptors and molecules/cells involved in induced responses.

  • Lecture: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Jennifer Nyland’s “Innate Immune Response” Link: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr.  Jennifer Nyland’s “Innate Immune Response” (Adobe Flash, MP3 or Quicktime)
     
    Instructions: Click on the arrow of the Immunology folder to open, then click on the “Innate Immune Response” lecture.  You have the choice of watching this on your computer with audio and slideshow or downloading the lecture to an MP3 player.  This lecture will cover the entirety of Unit 2 (in conjunction with the other resources listed below).
     
    This resource will take you approximately 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.1 Routes of Infection   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “The Front Line of Host Defense”

Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et
al.’s *Immunobiology*: “[The Front Line of Host
Defense](http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=imm&part=A150#A154)”
(HTML)  

 Instructions: Read sections 2-2 through 2-4 along with all
associated figures.  This will cover the material in subunits
2.1-2.3.  

 This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

2.1.1 Mucosal Routes   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.1.

2.1.2 External-Epithelia Routes   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.1.

2.2 First Encounter: Phagocytes   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.1.

2.3 The Inflammatory Response   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.1.

2.3.1 Inflammatory Cytokines   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.1.

2.3.2 Leukocyte Localization   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.1.

2.4 The Complement System   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “The Complement System” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “The Complement System” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read sections 2-5 through 2-14, along with all associated figures, and the end “Summary” paragraph of the webpage.  This will cover the material in 2.4.
 
This resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Lecture: Handwritten Tutorials: “Complement I: Overview,” “Complement II: Alternative Pathway,” and "Complement III: Classical and MBL Pathways" Link:  Handwritten Tutorials: "Complement I: Overview", "Complement II: Alternative Pathway", "Complement III: Classical and MBL Pathways" (Youtube)
     
    Instructions: Follow the above links to learn about the complement pathways.
     
    This resource will take approximatley 20 minutes to complete. 

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.4.1 Classic Pathway   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.4.

2.4.2 Mannan-Binding Lectin Pathway   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.4.

2.4.3 Alternative Pathway   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.4.

2.4.4 Opsonization and Inflammation mediated by complement   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.4.

2.4.5 Lysis mediated by complement   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.4.

2.4.6 Regulation of complement   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.4.

2.5 Receptors of the Innate Immune System  

Note: The general name now used for all the receptors of the innate immune system that recognize patterns on pathogens is pattern recognition receptors (PRR).  PRR include TLRs, mannan binding lectin, the chemotactic receptors, among others. The innate immune system, although not specific for the pathogen, recognizes patterns that occur in many pathogens to differentiate non-self from self. Please review the last five slides of Dr. Jennifer Nyland’s "Innate Immune Response” lecture to begin your studies of the receptors of the innate immune response.

  • Reading: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Jennifer Nyland's "Innate Immune Response" Link: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine Dr. Jennifer Nyland's "Innate Immune Response" (Adobe flash, MP3 or Quicktime)

    Instructions: Click on the arrow of the Immunology folder to open it, then click on the "Innate Immune Response" lecture. You have the choice of watching this on your computer with audio and slideshow or downloading the lecture to an MP3 player. This lecture will cover the entirety of Unit 2 (in conjunction with the other resources listed below.)

    This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Receptors of the Innate Immune System” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Receptors of the Innate Immune System” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read from the introduction through section 2-17 along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 2.5.
     
    This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.5.1 Pattern Recognition Receptors   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.5.

2.5.2 Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.5.

2.5.3 Receptor Involvement in Phagocytosis   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.5.

2.5.4 Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs)   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.5.

2.6 Induced Responses   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Induced Innate Responses to Infection” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Induced Innate Responses to Infection” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 2.6.

 This resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.1 Cytokines   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.6.

2.6.2 Chemokines   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.6.

2.6.3 Cell-Adhesion Molecules   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.6.

2.6.4 Neutrophils   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.6.

2.6.5 Tumor-Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-?)   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.6.

2.6.6 Interferons   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.6.

2.6.7 Natural-Killer Cells   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 2.6.

Unit 2 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "BIO407 Unit 2 Quiz" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "BIO407 Unit 2 Quiz" (PDF)

 Instructions: Please take the quiz. When you have finished, check
your work against the "[BIO407 Unit 2 Quiz Answer
Key](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/BIO407-Unit-2-Quiz-Answer-Key-FINAL.pdf)."
(PDF)  

 The assessment should take approximately 20 minutes to complete.