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BIO407: Immunology

Unit 1: An Introduction to the Immune System   In this first unit, we will cover the core concepts of immunology and identify the components of the innate (non-specific) and adaptive (specific) immune systems.

Both the innate and the adaptive immune systems help distinguish between what is “self” and what is “non-self” and subsequently protect against non-self.  Although this is an easy statement to say and read, stop for a moment and think of the complexity of this feat.  It takes so many different molecules to make you, and so many other molecules are on potential pathogens, how does the immune system know the difference, and react quickly enough to protect you? That question will be answered throughout this course. 

The innate immune system is available quickly and thus it is the first line of defense.  However, the innate immune system recognizes general patterns in pathogens so it is not specific for the individual pathogen. In addition, the innate immune response has no memory so there is no improvement in the innate immune response with repeat infection with the same pathogen.  The adaptive immune response takes time to respond, it is specific to the pathogen, it has memory so the subsequent response to the same pathogen occurs more quickly and is greater in magnitude.   In this unit, you will be introduced to the cells, proteins, structures and fluids involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses.

 

  Unit 1 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 3 hours to complete. ☐    Introduction to Unit 1: 0.75 hours

☐    Subunit 1.1: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2: 0.75 hours

☐    Subunit 1.3: 0.5 hours

☐    Unit 1 Assessment: 0.5 hours

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Identify basic distinctions between the innate and adaptive immune system.
  • Recognize a few fundamental experiments/discoveries in immunology (Jenner’s work on vaccines, Pasteur’s with rabies and cholera, Koch’s work on microbes).
  • Recognize different immune-system cells: their place of origin/maturation, their basic functions, and where they are most likely to be found.

  • Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Basic Concepts in Immunology” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Basic Concepts in Immunology” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this page in its entirety.  It will introduce you to the science of immunology and its origins.
     
    This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Jennifer Nyland’s “Overview of the Immune System” Link: The University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr.  Jennifer Nyland’s “Overview of the Immune System” (Adobe Flash, MP3 or Quicktime)
     
    Instructions: Click on the arrow of the Immunology folder to open, click on the “Overview of the Immune System” lecture.  You have the choice of watching this on your computer with audio and slideshow or downloading the lecture to an MP3 player.  This lecture will cover the material in Unit 1.
     
    This resource will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1 Basic Components of Immune System   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “The Components of the Immune System” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

1.1.1 Myeloid-Progenitor Cells   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.1.1 Granulocytes   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.1.2 Macrophages   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.1.3 Dendritic Cells   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.1.4 Mast Cells   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.2 Lymphoid-Progenitor Cells   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.2.1 B Cells   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.2.2 T Cells   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.2.3 Natural Killer (NK) Cells   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.3 Central (Primary) Lymphoid Organs   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.3.1 Bone Marrow   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.3.2 Thymus   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.4 Peripheral (Secondary) Lymphoid Organs   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.4.1 Lymph Nodes   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.4.2 Spleen   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.1.4.3 Mucosal-Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT)   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.1.

1.2 Basic Concepts of Innate and Adaptive Immunity   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Principles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity” National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “Principles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this page in its entirety along with all
associated figures.  It will cover the material in 1.2.  
    
 This resource will take approximately 45 minutes to complete.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.  

 *Note: The inflammatory response and innate immunity is the first
line of defense, but its role extends to helping begin the adaptive
immune response as well.  The hallmarks of inflammation are redness,
heat, pain, and swelling. These hallmarks are due to the actions of
the chemicals and cells of the innate immune system which will
briefly be described here. The adaptive immune response is further
separated into humoral and cellular immunity. *

*Humoral immunity originates with the term humours which means body
fluid, however the term humoral immunity is generally used to
describe the adaptive immune response that occurs in the fluid of
the blood, which more simply put, is antibody based immunity.
Cell-mediated immunity is defense specifically created by the direct
actions of immune T cells. Theories are available concerning how
lymphocytes can respond to many different antigens  how specific
responss are initiated when needed, and how reaction with
self-antigens is prevented were developed and tested in experiments
that illuminated these important and elegant traits. The theories
began with Burnet’s clonal selection theory, and were advanced with
Medawar’s understanding of tolerance to self, and then final
elucidation of these traits came with Tonegawa’s data concerning the
inheritance of immunoglobulin genes as gene segments that recombined
to form the intact gene. These theories and data are described in
this chapter and will help you realize what a remarkable system
protects you.*

1.2.1 The Inflammatory Response and Innate Immunity   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.2.

1.2.2 Initiation of Adaptive Immunity   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.2.

1.2.3 Lymphocyte Specificity   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.2.

1.2.4 Antibody Formation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.2.

1.2.5 Antigen Receptors   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.2.

1.3 Recognition and Signaling in Immune Systems   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “The Recognition and Effector Mechanisms of Adaptive Immunity” Link: National Institutes of Health: Professor Charles Janeway et al.’s Immunobiology: “The Recognition and Effector Mechanisms of Adaptive Immunity” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read sections 1-14 through 1-17 along with all associated figures.  This will cover the material in 1.3.
 
This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.3.1 Extracellular Antigen Recognition   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.3.

1.3.2 Intracellular Recognition – T Cells   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.3.

1.3.3 The MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) and Antigen Recognition   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 1.3.

Unit 1 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "BIO407 Unit 1 Quiz" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "BIO407 Unit 1 Quiz" (PDF)

 Instructions: Please take the quiz. When you have finished, check
your work against the "[BIO407 Unit 1 Quiz Answer
Key](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/BIO407-Unit-1-Quiz-Answer-Key-FINAL.pdf)."
(PDF)  

 The assessment should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.