Loading...

BIO406: Microscopic Anatomy

Unit 4: Organs and Organ Systems

In this unit, we will examine the microscopic anatomy of the organ systems that make up the body. Each system will be introduced with histological features identified. It is sometimes necessary to understand the function of the cell, tissue, or organ in order to make the connection between anatomy and physiology (structure and function). Remember, that all of the organs and organ systems are comprised of the four tissues – epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous – that we just studied in the previous unit.   

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit will take approximately 47 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 4.1.1: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 4.1.2: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 4.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4.3: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 4.4: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4.5: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4.6: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 4:7: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4.8: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4.9: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4.10: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4:11: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 4.12: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4.13: 3 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - point out circulatory system features, including intercalated disks and valves, as well as the differences between different vessel types; - identify the cells found in blood and the role of each; - define how the tissues and anatomical features that make up the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems come together structurally to support the function of these organ systems; - identify the features of the epidermis and dermis of the skin, including the cells, layers, glands, and other features of each layer; - explain how the structural arrangement of the lymphatic system and lymph node supports its physiological role of filtering; - compare and contrast the structural arrangement of spongy and compact bone; - map out the path of plasma filtrate as it moves through the neuron and into the ureter, bladder, and urethra, identifying what types of cells are located in each part;  - describe the basic structure of endocrine organs, including the reproductive organs; and - identify what features make special senses tissue unique.

4.1 Circulatory System   4.1.1 Heart and Blood Vessels   NOTE: The heart is made up the endocardium (epithelial and connective tissue), myocardium (muscle tissue), and epicardium (the outer layer).  

  • Reading: Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology: Dr. Thomas Caceci’s “Cardiovascular System: Myocardium and Heart” Link: Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology: Dr. Thomas Caceci’s “Cardiovascular System: Myocardium and Heart (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Review the objectives by clicking on “objectives.” Next, read through the material provided and notice how the microscopic structure supports the function of the heart – rhythmic contractions that pump blood throughout the body. Once you have reviewed the current page, click on the blood vessels exercise at the top of the webpage. Review this material, paying close attention to how blood vessel anatomy changes depending upon location and type of vessel  artery, vein, or capillary.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

4.1.2 Blood and Bone Marrow   - Lecture: YouTube: University of Missouri School of Medicine: Dr. William J. Krause’s “Histology of Blood & Bone Marrow” Link: YouTube: University of Missouri School of Medicine: Dr. William J. Krause’s “Histology of Blood & Bone Marrow (YouTube)
  
Instructions: Watch Dr. Krause’s video lecture on blood and bone marrow. 

 Watching this video should take approximately 1 hour and 15
minutes.  
    
 Note on the Lecture: This lecture does a great job of identifying
the cells normally found in the blood. In blood there are leukocytes
(white blood cells), erythrocytes (red blood cells), and platelets.
There are five types of leukocytes. These include neutrophils,
lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils. Neutrophils are
the most abundant and are elevated when a bacterial infection is
present. Lymphocytes differentiate into B and T cells, which are
important in the adaptive immune response including antibody
production. They are the second most abundant cells. Dr. Krause also
discusses the cells that are present during certain disease
states.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.2 Gastrointestinal System   NOTE: The accessory glands associated with this system include the pancreas (which has both endocrine and exocrine function), gastric glands, salivary glands, and others. 

  • Web Media: University of Leicester: The Virtual Autopsy’s “Gastrointestinal System” Link: University of Leicester: The Virtual Autopsy’s “Gastrointestinal System (HTML)
     
    Instructions: This is a great introduction to the gastrointestinal tract. Click through the colored areas on the model’s anatomy for explanations of each body part, as well as histology slides. Pay close attention to the tissues that make up the gastrointestinal tract and the special anatomical features of these tissues. Notice how the muscle type changes throughout the gastrointestinal tract and as with many of our other organ systems, simple squamous epithelial cells line their interior. Look at the special features of the epithelial tissue in the intestines.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Southern Illinois School of Medicine: Dr. David King’s “Study Guide Histology of the Gastrointestinal System” Link: Southern Illinois School of Medicine: Dr. David King’s “Study Guide Histology of the Gastrointestinal System” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Review the layers and regions, special features, and cell types of the gastrointestinal tract sections. There is a lot of material covered in this section. Start with the oral cavity then the esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines to the anus. As you are reviewing the microscopic anatomy, think about where the accessory glands fit into this system. Once you complete this section, click on the hyperlinks for liver and glands. Focus on the bigger picture for the glands – how does each supply a fluid or substance that aids in the digestive process. For example, salivary glands secrete saliva for mechanical digestion (and since it contains amylase to break down starch – chemical digestion). In much of the intestines, Goblet cells secrete lubricating mucous. The liver also has a major role in digestion – producing bile to break down lipids and also serving in numerous other processes.      
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

4.3 Respiratory System   - Web Media: National Heart Lung and Blood Institute’s “How the Lungs Work” Link: National Heart Lung and Blood Institute’s “How the Lungs Work” (HTML and Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: This resource provides an overview of the respiratory system. Click through the hyperlinks for each section listed in the box on the left. When you get to the screen “What Happens When You Breathe,” watch the animation, which includes the basic microscopic anatomy of the lungs. Focus on the microscopic structure and how the pulmonary vein supplies the oxygen to the air sacs alveoli) that is then transferred to red blood cells. This is a classic example of how structure is important for function (physiology).
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • Reading: Gateway Community College: J. Crimando’s “Respiratory System” Link: Gateway Community College: J. Crimando’s “Respiratory System” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: This webpage begins with a slide of a normal lung. Review this slide and then click on each subsequent slide at the bottom of the webpage to continue viewing slides of the respiratory system, which include more slides of a normal lung, emphysema lung, and anthracosis lung. Notice how the microscopic anatomy changes as the inflammatory process is initiated.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.4 Integumentary System   NOTE: The outermost layer of skin is the epidermis and is actually several layers of both dead and living cells. It has a nerve supply but no vascular (blood vessel) supply. The layer beneath the epidermis is known as the dermis. This layer contains oil and sweat gland, as well as the hair follicle and has both nerve and vascular supply. 

  • Web Media: YouTube: Modesto Junior College Dr. Robert Droual’s “Composite Skin Model Glands” Link: YouTube: Modesto Junior College Dr. Robert Droual’s “Composite Skin Model Glands (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this brief video that introduces the oil and sweat glands that are located in the dermis of the skin. The major type of sweat gland in most skin is the eccrine (sudiferous) sweat gland. Sweat secretion is very important for body temperature regulation. Sebaceous oil gland secretions help to lubricate the skin.   

    Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.    
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Modesto Junior College: Dr. Robert Droual’s “Composite Skin Model Introduction” Link: YouTube: Modesto Junior College: Dr. Robert Droual’s “Composite Skin Model Introduction (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this brief video which introduces the three layers of the skin – the epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis. You will see how skin differs based upon location by viewing skin models from the scalp, armpit, and sole or palm. 

    Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Modesto Junior College: Dr. Robert Droual’s “Composite Skin Model Dermis & Epidermis” Link: YouTube: Modesto Junior College: Dr. Robert Droual’s “Composite Skin Model Dermis & Epidermis (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this brief video lecture, which introduces the layers of the skin. Notice how the innermost epidermal layer, the stratum basale, carries out mitosis, whereas the outermost layer, the stratum granulosum is made up only of dead cells. The stratum lucidum is a special layer found only in thick skin found on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Beneath the epidermis is the dermis, which contains glands, hair follicles, nerve endings, and vascular (blood) supply.

    Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Modesto Junior College Dr. Robert Droual’s “Composite Skin Model Hair Follicle” Link: YouTube: Modesto Junior College Dr. Robert Droual’s “Composite Skin Model Hair Follicle (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this brief video about the microscopic features of the hair follicle. At this point you should be able to identify the various layers that make up the epidermis and the tissues, glands, and other structures (including the hair follicle) that are found in the dermis. 

    Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.       
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.5 Lymphatic System   - Reading: Saylor Foundation’s “Lymphatic System” Link: Saylor Foundation’s “Lymphatic System (PDF)

 Instructions: This reading gives a good overview of the anatomy of
the lymphatic system. Note the vast number of tissues and organs
that are involved in the lymphatic system.  

4.6 Skeletal System   NOTE: Bones within the body are made up of compact and spongy bone. The osteon arrangement of compact bone is also known as the Haversian System.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media’s “Skeletal System Bone Structure” Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media’s “Skeletal System Bone Structure (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this brief video which introduces the skeletal system and overviews the microscopic anatomy of bone.

    Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Modesto Junior College: Dr. Robert Droual’s “Bone Model Osteon” Link: YouTube: Modesto Junior College: Dr. Robert Droual’s “Bone Model Osteon (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this brief video lecture that introduces the osteon, which makes up compact bone. Notice the distinct features of compact bone – the central canal with blood vessel supply surrounded by concentric rings (lamellae) containing osteocytes (mature bone cells) in little cocoons known as lacunae. The central blood vessel brings in the nutrients that must be distributed from the center out through projections known as canaliculi to each osteocyte in the concentric lamellae. Wastes are similarly brought back through this system to reach the blood vessel for removal.   

    Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Southern Illinois University: Dr. David King’s “Skeletal Tissue (Bone and Cartilage)” Link: Southern Illinois University: Dr. David King’s “Skeletal Tissue (Bone and Cartilage) (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this entire text, which provides a good deal of information about bone, cartilage, and the joints that stabilize bones. Pay close attention to the histology (tissue) slides that are presented. Notice how the histology slide so closely resembles the model that you observed previously.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.7 Renal System   NOTE: The renal (urinary) system includes the kidneys that filter blood to make urine, the ureters that drain the kidneys (or nephrons) into the bladder, the urinary bladder, and the urethra, which allows urine to pass out of the body. The nephron’s glomerulus filters blood plasma (the liquid part of the blood minus the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets). The filtrate moves into the proximal convoluted tubule, then the Loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule, before finally making its way into the collecting duct. Distinct anatomical differences exist in the various sections of the nephron depending upon function.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Handwritten Tutorial’s “The Nephron Function”  Link: YouTube: Handwritten Tutorial’s “Nephron Function” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this video for a brief overview of how the nephrons in the kidney filter blood and reabsorb water and other molecules.

    Watching this video should take approximately 10 minutes.
      
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section 12: Urinary System” Link: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section 12: Urinary System (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this entire webpage, and click on the hyperlinks for each plate at the top of the webpage or use the “Next” hyperlink at the bottom of the page to view the photos. 
     
    Note on the Text: This reading includes a brief description of the urinary system’s function and includes detailed pictures of the kidney, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Notice how the kidney is made up of the outermost layer, the cortex and the innermost layer, the medulla with distinct vascular supply.   
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Khan Academy’s “The Kidney and the Nephron” Link: YouTube: Khan Academy’s “The Kidney and the Nephron” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Watch this video for a more in depth look at the anatomy and biological functions of the kidney and nephron.

    Watching this video should take approximately 20 minutes. 

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use as displayed on the webpages above.

4.8 Endocrine System   NOTE: The endocrine system is made up of a large number of organs and glands that secrete hormones. This is a ductless system as the hormones are secreted directly into the surrounding tissue and then make their way to the bloodstream. Hormones travel in the blood until they find their target tissue receptors. Unlike the nervous system, which rapidly signals and has a short lived response, the endocrine system takes longer to initiate a response, but this response is longer lived. 

  • Reading: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section 15: Endocrine Glands” Link: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section 15: Endocrine Glands (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the entire webpage linked here, and click on the hyperlinks for each plate at the top of the webpage or use the “Next” hyperlink at the bottom of the page to view the photos. Notice how the terms cortex and medulla are used to describe the adrenal gland, as we already saw with the kidney.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.9 Special Senses   NOTE: The special senses include sight, smell, taste, hearing, and equilibrium.

  • Reading: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section 16: Special Senses” Link: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section 16: Special Senses (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the entire webpage linked here, and click on the hyperlinks for each plate at the top of the webpage or use the “Next” hyperlink at the bottom of the page to view the photos. This section includes microscopic tissue sections from the eye, the nose, the tongue, and the ear. Notice how specific cell types are important for the special senses. For example, bipolar neurons are important for the sense of smell (olfaction).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.10 Female Reproductive System   - Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Fabian’s “Female Reproductive System” Link: YouTube: Dr. Fabian’s “Female Reproductive System (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this video which introduces you to the anatomy of the female reproductive system. Make sure that you understand the gross anatomy so that when we look at tissue slides, you can make the connection between microscopic and macroscopic (gross) features.

 Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section 13: Female Reproductive System” Link: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section 13: Female Reproductive System (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the entire webpage linked here, and click on the hyperlinks for each plate at the top of the webpage or use the “Next” hyperlink at the bottom of the page to view the photos. This reading includes microscopic anatomy of the female reproductive system. Pay special attention to the various follicles and how the development of one follicle will ultimately lead to the ovulation of one egg. Also, note the types of cells that make up the tissue/organs of the female reproductive system.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.11 Male Reproductive System   - Web Media: YouTube: slackerbiz’s “The Male Reproductive System” Link: YouTube: slackerbiz’s “The Male Reproductive System” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: This brief video introduces the anatomical features of the male reproductive system. Pay special attention to how the microscopic anatomy of each organ or tissue is important for overall structure and function.

 Watching this video should take approximately 10 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section14: Male Reproductive System” Link: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section 14: Male Reproductive System (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the entire webpage linked here, and click on the hyperlinks for each plate at the top of the webpage or use the “Next” hyperlink at the bottom of the page to view the photos. This reading includes microscopic anatomy of the male reproductive system.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.12 Nervous System   - Lecture: West Virginia University: Dr. Rodney Brundage’s “Chapter 5 Central Nervous System I” Link: West Virginia University: Dr. Rodney Brundage’s “Chapter 5 Central Nervous System I” (HTML)
 
Instructions: View these lecture slides. Use the gray box with the single right-facing arrow to move forward and the gray box with the single left-facing arrow to move back.
 
Note on the Lecture: We already covered the nervous tissue and discussed the main nervous system cell, the neuron. It is also important that you have a good understanding of this system as a whole. This PowerPoint lecture set gives a good explanation of the parts of the nervous system, including the supportive cells of the nervous system known as glial cells.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.13 Muscular System   - Reading: Prentice Hall: Ric Martini’s Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology: “Chapter 10 Muscle Tissue” Link: Prentice Hall: Ric Martini’s Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology“Chapter 10 Muscle Tissue (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire text linked above, using the arrows to click through each page.
 
Note on the Text: Like the nervous system, we have already covered aspects of the muscular system when we looked at muscle tissue. At this point, you should already know that cardiac muscle is exclusively found in the heart and smooth muscle is found lining hollow organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract and bladder. The descriptor “muscular system” in scientific literature largely refers to skeletal muscle and it function. This reading focuses exclusively on skeletal muscle and provides a thorough overview of the microscopic anatomy of skeletal muscle. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.