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BIO406: Microscopic Anatomy

Unit 2: Cellular Structure   This unit will discuss the basic unit of life, the cell. You will study the eukaryotic cell’s outer layer, the plasma (cell) membrane. The cell’s interior organs, known as organelles, will be identified and examined, including the cell’s control center known as the nucleus. To understand how cells work together in the microscopic environment, it is imperative that you know basic cell structure.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit will take approximately 8 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 4 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - identify the organelles within a eukaryotic cell and list the basic function of each; and - compare and contrast meiosis and mitosis, identifying the steps of each in microscopic images.

2.1 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Including Organelles   - Web Media: National Institute of General Medical Science’s “An Owner's Guide to the Cell” Link: National Institute of General Medical Science’s “An Owner's Guide to the Cell (HTML and Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Read the text and study the beautiful images and animation that are included. Also, note the size of the organelles. Do not forget nanometer is 10-9 and micrometer (micron) is 10-6. Which one is smaller? The nanometer is smaller, because the negative before the exponent tells you to move the decimal point to the left and the number tells you how many places. Once you feel that you have mastered the material, make sure that you can answer the “Got It” questions at the bottom of the page.   
 
Note on the Media: This website is presented by the National Institute of General Medical Science, a department of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This site presents the organelles contained within the eukaryotic (animal) cell and compares eukaryotic cells to prokaryotic (bacterial) cells. 
 
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  • Assessment: WISC-Online Gerald Heins’ “A Typical Animal Cell” Link:  WISC-Online Gerald Heins’ “A Typical Animal Cell (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: This interactive model will allow you to drag your cursor over different organelles in a typical animal cell. The organelle will be identified and its function described. Once you feel confident that you have mastered the anatomy of the cell's organelles, click the next button to take an interactive quiz. Keep working through this activity until you have mastered the cellular organelles. 
     
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2.2 Cellular Reproduction by Meiosis and Mitosis   - Reading: National Institute of General Medical Science’s “Cellular Reproduction: Multiplication by Division” Link: National Institute of General Medical Science’s “Cellular Reproduction: Multiplication by Division (HTML)
 
Instructions: In order for tissues to remain viable and healthy, old worn out cells must be replaced with new healthy cells. This reading discusses mitosis (cell division resulting in two cells each with two copies of each chromosome) and meiosis (the process that reshuffles genetic information and produces the egg and sperm that contain one copy of each chromosome). Check your knowledge with the “Got It” questions at the bottom of the page.      
 
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  • Web Media: McGraw Hill’s “Comparison of Meiosis & Mitosis” Link: McGraw Hill’s “Comparison of Meiosis & Mitosis (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Watch this short video that emphasizes the differences and similarities between meiosis and mitosis.
     
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  • Interactive Lab: University of Delaware Department of Biological Sciences’ “Microscopy Pre-Lab Activities” Link: University of Delaware Department of Biological Sciences’ “Microscopy Pre-Lab Activities (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Click on the virtual scope. We have used this tool before in subunit 1.2, but if you need a refresher, work through the tutorial. Put the onion root slide on the scope. This slide will allow you to observe the various phases of mitosis. Use what you have learned about mitosis to view the various stages in these cells. You should be able to identify prophase (chromosomes first become visible), metaphase (chromosomes meet in the middle), anaphase (chromosomes separate), telophase (nuclear membrane forms around chromosomes, chromosomes spread out, spindle breaks down), and cytokinesis (pinching in of cytoplasm and complete cell division). If you are able to find all stages, great job as you have mastered microscopy and mitosis!  
     
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