Unit 1: Microsopy and Microscopic Anatomy In this unit, you will study the microscope and how it relates to cells and microscopic anatomy. If the microscope was not invented, the world of microscopic anatomy, as we know it, would not exist. One of the most important skills required to study microscopic anatomy is use of the microscope. First, we you will be introduced to the microscopic world and the history of how it began. Then, we will use the virtual microscope to explore and apply basic microscope techniques and principles.
Unit 1 Time Advisory
This unit will take approximately 9 hours to complete.
☐ Subunit 1.1: 4 hours
☐ Subunit 1.2: 5 hours
Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - differentiate between the types of microscopy and describe the importance of microscopes in microscopic anatomy; and - correctly use the compound light microscope with a working knowledge of the function of each part.
1.1 The World of Microscopy
- Reading: Fulton-Montgomery Community College Michael McDarby’s
Modern Biology Online Textbook Explaining Life: “Chapter 4:
Explaining Life: The Microscopic World”
Link: Fulton-Montgomery Community College Michael McDarby’s Modern
Biology Online Textbook: “Chapter 4: Explaining Life: The
Instructions: Read the entire chapter on the website. You may want to also click on the hyperlinks for terms and concepts to help enhance your reading.
Note on the Text: This reading introduces the idea of using the microscope to study cells. Without the use of a microscope, there would be no microscopic anatomy.
1.2 Using the Compound Light Microscope
- Interactive Lab: University of Delaware Department of Biological
Sciences’ “Microscopy Pre-Lab Activities”
Link: University of Delaware Department of Biological
Sciences’ “Microscopy Pre-Lab
Also available in: Adobe Flash
Instructions: Watch the instructional video, which introduces you to the microscope and its parts. To access the video, click on the hyperlink for “Quicktime” or “Flash Video.” Next, click on the hyperlink for the virtual scope. Since this is likely your first time using this tool, complete the tutorial, which gives clear instructions on how to use the various features. This is an excellent model of the real thing!
Start with the slide titled “letter e,” which is a clip of an actual efrom a newspaper. Place the slide on the stage with the image placed directly below the lowest power objective (4X). Once you have the slide on the stage in the correct place, you will want to switch views so that you are looking through the oculars. At this point, you will need to adjust the focus using the coarse adjustment knob. Once you have a clear view of your image, switch the objectives to higher magnification, using only the fine focus to adjust the clarity of the image. The eimage allows you to observe how the orientation changes when using the microscope. An ein the correct orientation off the microscope will be upside down and backwards under the microscope. This is due to the two lens system – the oculars at 10X magnification and the objectives at variable magnifications. Also, notice that image stays in the center (parcenter) and for the most part focused (parfocal) as you go to higher objective magnifications. You are simply focusing in on one section of the eor image.
The onion root slide will allow you to observe the various phases of mitosis. We will skip it for now. When you study mitosis later in this course, we will revisit this site to view the onion root tip.
The cheek smear is known as a wet mount and is made by scraping the interior of the cheek gently with a toothpick and then smearing it onto a slide with stain and covering with a coverslip. A wet mount is simply a scraping or swab of the sample that is placed on a slide sometimes in a small amount of water, covered with a thin piece of glass (coverslip), and stained. This is different from prepared slides that are pieces of sample (tissue) cut very thinly (sections), placed on the slide, and stained.