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BIO404: Cancer Biology

Unit 5: Intercellular Interactions and Invasions   In order for cancer cells to spread throughout the body, they must not only proliferate but also interact with each other and other cell types.  Once cancer cells begin to proliferate, a cluster of cells forms and eventually reaches a size at which the cells can no longer acquire the oxygen and nutrients they need through diffusion.  Like normal tissues, they need a blood supply and are therefore able to secrete factors that trigger normal cells to form new blood vessels.  This process is called angiogenesis and is thought to be first condition necessary for metastasis (cancer spread and invasion).*
*Once tumors are able to proliferate, some portion of them must be able to detach from the original tumor, spread through the body, and “invade” other tissues.  Changes in the level of cell adhesion (the loosening of cells from their connections to one another) are often associated with an increased ability of cancer cells to spread.  Proteolysis, the selective degradation of portions of other cell membranes, is also a necessary precondition for the invasion of tissue by cancer cells.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
Time Advisory: This unit will take approximately 9 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 5 hours

         ☐    Subunit 5.1.1: 2 hours

         ☐    Subunit 5.1.2: 1.5 hours

         ☐    Subunit 5.1.3: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2: 4 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Describe how the process of angiogenesis promotes the survival and spread of cancer cells. - List the common inducers and inhibitors of angiogenesis and how these are used in targeted therapy. - Outline the steps leading to metastasis and three ways that cancer spreads to other areas of the body - Identify the common sites that cancer spreads in various types of cancer.

5.1 Angiogenesis   5.1.1 Initiation   - Web Media: National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Angiogenesis” Link:  National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Angiogenesis” (HTML, PDF, or PPT)
 
Instructions:  This slide presentation thoroughly covers angiogenesis.  Click on slide 1, and read the notes that accompany the slide.  Once you have finished with this slide, click the forward arrow to view the next slide.  Continue until you have viewed slides 1 through 10.  This slide presentation is available for downloading as a PDF or a PowerPoint with notes, using the options on the left of the screen.
 
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5.1.2 Inducers   - Web Media: National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Angiogenesis” Link:  National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Angiogenesis” (HTML, PDF or PPT)
 
Instructions:  Click on slide 11 to start.  Press the forward arrow to move to the next slide.  View slides 11 through 14.  This slide presentation is available for downloading as a PDF, or a PowerPoint with notes, using the options on the left of the screen.
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5.1.3 Inhibitors   - Web Media: National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Angiogenesis” Link:  National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Angiogenesis” (HTML, PDF, or PPT)
 
Instructions:  Click on slide 15 to start.  Press the forward arrow to move to the next slide.  View slides 15 through 26.  This slide presentation is available for downloading as a PDF, or a PowerPoint with notes, using the options on the left of the screen.
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5.2 Metastasis   5.2.1 Adhesion   - Web Media: Emory University’s CancerQuest: “Hallmark of Cancer: Metastasis” Link:  Emory University’s CancerQuest “Hallmark of Cancer: Metastasis” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read this single webpage about one of the hallmarks of cancer, metastasis.  Pay special attention to the focus on adhesion molecules and their role in this process.
 
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5.2.2 Proteolysis   - Reading: International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: Professor Tanja Cufer’s “Biology of Metastasis with Focus on Proteases” Link: International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: Professor Tanja Cufer’s “Biology of Metastasis with Focus on Proteases” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions:  Read this short article about the most common proteases shown to be involved in cancer metastasis.  Please note that you may also download the PDF version of this text on the website.
 
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5.2.3 Routes   - Web Media: Emory University’s CancerQuest: “Metastasis” Link:  Emory University’s CancerQuest: “Metastasis” (HTML and PDF)
 
Instructions:  This first slide shows the common routes of metastasis—through the blood, lymphatic system, and body cavity wall.  Once you have viewed the first slide, click next to view the second (lymphatic system) and then third (model). This material can be viewed in PDF by clicking “Download as PDF” under the title.
 
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  • Reading: National Cancer Institute’s “Metastatic Cancer” Link:  National Cancer Institute’s “Metastatic Cancer” (HTML or PDF)
     
    Instructions:  Scroll down to question 4, titled “How does cancer spread,” and read this section.  This gives a bit more insight into how can spreads from the site of origin elsewhere in the body.  This is available for downloading as a PDF using the options on the left of the screen.
     
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5.2.4 Sites of Origin   - Reading: National Cancer Institute’s “Metastatic Cancer” Link:  National Cancer Institute’s “Metastatic Cancer” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions:  Read through question numbers 1 through 3.  This reading discusses the spread of cancer from its origin to a new location in the body.  The chart shows common sites of cancer spread.  This  is available for downloading as a PDF using the options on the left of the screen.
 
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5.2.5 Assessment   - Assessment: Emory University’s CancerQuest: “Test Your Knowledge on What is Cancer” Link:  Emory University’s CancerQuest “Test Your Knowledge on What is Cancer?” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Click on the question mark to the left to answer five questions about metastasis.  Keep taking the quiz until you get all of the questions correct.
 
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