Loading...

BIO404: Cancer Biology

Unit 3: Growth Inhibitors   In normal cells, there are factors that check cell growth, prevent or slow cell division, and trigger apoptosis (programmed cell death) of specific cells.  If these genes are defective, their inability to control these processes of the normal cell cycle can also lead to cancer.  This unit will cover the processes of the typical cell cycle and its checkpoints and will examine the genes and proteins whose loss of function can lead to cell division without restraints.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
Time Advisory: This unit will take approximately 9 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 2.25 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 1.75 hours

☐    Subunit 3.1: 4.5 hours

         ☐    Subunit 3.3.1: 2 hours

         ☐    Subunit 3.3.2: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.4: 0.5 hour

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Describe the cell cycle, including the checkpoints that prevent uncontrolled cell growth and development. - Give examples of tumor suppressors, and explain how their de-activation leads to cancer. - Compare and contrast the mechanisms by which oncogenes, loss of tumor suppressors, and faulty DNA repair cause cancer.

3.1 The Cell Cycle   - Web Media: Emory University’s CancerQuest: “Cell Division” Link: Emory University’s CancerQuest: “Cell Division” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This module does a great job reviewing all of the steps of the cell cycle and relating it to cancer and cancer treatment.  Start with the introduction and work your way through the summary.  Click on next to move to subsequent pages, and click on the tab to the left to go to the next section.  Make sure to view the animations that are found throughout this module.  Focus on the different phases of the cell cycle and the ways that deviation from these normal phases might lead to cancer.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.2 Checkpoints of the Cell Cycle   3.2.1 G1 and S Phases   - Reading: Sigma-Aldrich’s “G1 & S Phases” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

3.2.2 G2 Phase and Mitosis   - Reading: Sigma-Aldrich’s “G2 & M Phases” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

3.2.3 Cyclin-Dependent Kinases   - Web Media: YouTube: University of California at San Francisco: Dr. David O. Morgan’s “Part 1: Controlling the Cell Cycle: Introduction” Link: YouTube: University of California at San Francisco: Dr. David O. Morgan’s “Part 1: Controlling the Cell Cycle: Introduction” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch this video in its entirety (28:31 minutes).  This video does a great job of reviewing the cell cycle and presents a lot of good information about cyclin-dependent kinases from Dr. Morgan, a cdk expert.  Pay special attention to the information about cdks.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.4 Assessment   - Assessment: Emory University’s CancerQuest “Test Your Knowledge on Cell Division” Link:  Emory University’s CancerQuest “Test Your Knowledge on Cell Division” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Click on the question mark on the left side bar to open the 10 question quiz over cell division.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.3 Tumor-Suppressor Genes   3.3.1 Functions and Pathways   - Reading: National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Cancer” Link:  National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Cancer” (HTML, PDF or PPT)

 Instructions:  View slide 45, 46, and 47.  This will introduce
tumor suppressor genes.  This slide presentation is available for
downloading as a PDF or a PowerPoint with notes, using the options
on the left of the screen.  
    
 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: Emory University’s CancerQuest: “Introduction to Cancer Genes Tumor Suppressors” Link:  Emory University’s CancerQuest: “Introduction to Cancer Genes Tumor Suppressors” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  You have already read the Cancer Genes Overview.  Click on the Tumor Suppressors tab to the left.  There are eleven pages to the module, including some interactive videos.  Be sure to view all of the videos.  Click next to move to subsequent pages.
     
    Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.2 Examples   3.3.2.1 p53   - Web Media: Cold Stream Harbor Laboratory’s DNA Learning Center: “Causes, Smoking: p53” Link:  Cold Stream Harbor Laboratory’s DNA Learning Center: “Causes, Smoking: p53” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions:  You might recall that the protein p53 is a transcription factor.  As mentioned, p53 works in a manner that classifies it as a tumor suppressor.  Cold Stream Harbor Laboratory presents this animation of how transcription factor and tumor suppressor p53 regulates the cell cycle allowing for DNA repair.  Use the forward arrow to work your way through the phases of the animation.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Sigma-Aldrich’s “The p53 Signaling Pathway” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

3.3.2.2 Rb (retinoblastoma)   - Web Media: The McGraw Hill Companies’ “How Tumor Suppressor Genes Block Cell Division” Link: The McGraw Hill Companies’ “How Tumor Suppressor Genes Block Cell Division” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions:  You might recall that like p53, retinoblastoma is a transcription factor that also acts as a tumor suppressor.  This animation shows how retinoblastoma and p53 work together to control the progression of the cell cycle.  Press play to start. 
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: The McGraw Hill Companies’ “How Tumor Suppressor Genes Block Cell Division” Link: The McGraw Hill Companies’ “How Tumor Suppressor Genes Block Cell Division” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Scroll all the way down to take the five question quiz to test your knowledge of how tumor suppressor genes prevent the division of cells.
     
    Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.2.3 BRCA1 and BRCA2   - Reading: National Cancer Institute’s “BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testing” Link: National Cancer Institute’s “BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testing” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions:  Read through the eighteen questions and their answers to learn more about breast cancer risk assessment using BRCA1 and BRCA2.  You do not need to click on the hyperlinks.  This Fact Sheet is available for downloading as a PDF using the options on the left of the screen.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.4 Cell Biology and Cancer   - Reading: National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Cancer” Link:  National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Cancer” (HTML, PDF or PPT)

 Instructions:  View slides 49, 50, and 51 to put it all
together—oncogenes, loss of tumor suppressors, and DNA repair issues
plus other factors—to determine what leads to the development of
cancer.  This slide presentation is available for downloading as a
PDF or a PowerPoint with notes, using the options on the left of the
screen.  
    
 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.