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BIO404: Cancer Biology

Unit 1: Origins and Overview   This unit will introduce you to the history of cancer.  Many notable scientists have made important discoveries about the causes of cancer, its progression, and potential therapies.  You will learn about how our understanding of cancer has evolved throughout history from early beliefs that cancer was contagious leading to isolation to the more modern approach of targeting the genes that cause cancer.  In subunit 1.2, you will get an overview of what happens to cells leading to cancer, causative agents, and basic information about the spread of this disease.  Following units will go into more detail about this information.  

Unit 1 Time Advisory
Time Advisory: This unit will take approximately 10.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 1.1: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2: 9 hours

       ☐    Subunit 1.2.1: 0.25 hour

       ☐    Subunit 1.2.2: 2 hours

       ☐    Subunit 1.2.3: 4 hours

       ☐    Subunit 1.2.4: 2.25 hours

       ☐    Subunit 1.2.5: 0.5 hour

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Explain how scientists Hippocrates and Galen coined the terms cancer and oncology. - Describe how surgeon John Hunter and microscopic researcher Rudolf Virchow connected their observations to the pathology and treatment of cancer. - List the common theories used to describe the cause of cancer. - Overview the impact that the discovery of DNA by scientists Watson and Crick had on the cancer community. - Discuss the finding of Nobel Prize winner Peyton Rous, that certain viruses can cause cancer. - Differentiate between carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, and lymphoma and how these terms are used to name cancer types. - Summarize why it is important to understand basic biology in the study of cancer. - Name the six hallmarks of cancer. - Outline how cancer starts and how it spreads. - Identify common causes of cancer.

1.1 History of Cancer   - Reading: American Cancer Society’s “The History of Cancer” Link:  American Cancer Society’s “The History of Cancer” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions:  The American Cancer Society presents this eighteen page reading, which describes the history of cancer and many significant scientific discoveries made by numerous notable scientists.  We will read the first seven pages.  Click Next Topic above the gray bar to continue to the next page.  Continue through The History of Cancer module until you reach the Cancer Screening and Early Detection page.  Once you have read this page, stop.  We will cover past, present, and future cancer therapies later in this course.  If you would like to have a copy of this material, a PDF is available for downloading and printing by selecting the PDF button below the title on the linked page.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2 Introduction: What is Cancer?   1.2.1 Test Your Knowledge   - Assessment: WebMD’s “Cancer Quiz” Link: WebMD’s “Cancer Quiz” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Take this five question quiz assessing your current knowledge of cancer.  Don’t worry if you don’t do well.  You will learn all these answers and more in this course.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.2 Definition   - Reading: National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Cancer” Link: National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Cancer” (HTML, PDF or PPT)

 Instructions: The National Cancer Institute presents this slide
show that introduces cancer.  Click on the hyperlink titled “1. What
Is Cancer?” to get started.  Press the arrow (advance) button at the
top of the page once you have finished with each slide.  Stop once
you have viewed slides 1 through 4.  This slide presentation is
available for downloading as a PDF or a PowerPoint with notes, using
the options on the left of the screen.  

 *Note: This resource has temporarily been replaced by an archived
version from the Internet Archive's "Wayback Machine." You can find
more information about the Internet Archive and the Wayback Machine
[here](https://archive.org/about/faqs.php#The_Wayback_Machine).*    

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: The Annenberg Foundation’s Rediscovering Biology Online Textbook: “Unit Cell Biology and Cancer” Link:  The Annenberg Foundation’s Rediscovering Biology Online Textbook:Unit 8: Cell Biology and Cancer” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  This short article clearly defines cancer in basic terms.  You only need to read the section “What Is Cancer?” on this webpage.
     
    Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Washington University School of Medicine’s Siteman Cancer Center: Dr. Piwnica-Worm’s “Podcast: Understanding the Basic Biology of Cancer” Link:  Washington University School of Medicine’s Siteman Cancer Center: Dr. Piwnica-Worm’s “Podcast: Understanding the Basic Biology of Cancer” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions:  Press play to listen to Dr. Piwnica-Worm’s Podcast (8:19 minutes) about how it is important to understand what is happening with cells to study cancer.  The play button is located in the gray bar just below the heading “Understanding the Basic Biology of Cancer.”
                             
    Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.3 The Six Hallmarks of Cancer   - Web Media: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory’s Inside Cancer: “Hallmarks of Cancer” Link: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory’s Inside Cancer: “Hallmarks of Cancer” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions:  Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory offers this four module series called Inside Cancer.  We will focus on the module called “Hallmarks of Cancer” to understand how cancer cells evade suicide signals to become immortalized.  Click on “Hallmarks of Cancer” to open the module.  There are eight sections in this module.  Start with the Overview and work your way through the remaining sections: Growing Uncontrollably, Evading Death, Processing Nutrients, Becoming Immortal, Invading Tissues, Avoiding Detection, and Promoting Mutations.  For each section, you will need to click the arrow to move to the next step in the animation.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.4 Causes   - Reading: National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Cancer” Link:  National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Cancer” (HTML, PDF or PPT)

 Instructions:  The National Cancer Institute presents this slide
show and reading that introduces cancer.  This website presents
various topics that we will discuss in more detail in later units. 
Please review slides 24 through 36.  Press the arrow (advance)
button at the top of the page once you have finished with each
slide.  This slide presentation is available for downloading as a
PDF or a PowerPoint with notes, using the options on the left of the
screen.  
    
 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.5 Initiation and Progression   - Reading: National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Cancer” Link:  National Cancer Institute’s “Understanding Cancer Series: Cancer” (HTML, PDF or PPT)

 Instructions:  The National Cancer Institute presents this slide
show and reading that introduces cancer.  This website presents
various topics that we will discuss in more detail in later units. 
Review slides 6 through 9.  This slide presentation is available for
downloading as a PDF or a PowerPoint with notes, using the options
on the left of the screen.  
    
 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.