Loading...

BIO403: Biotechnology

Unit 10: Emerging Biotechnology Fields   Our last unit looks at some emerging areas of biotechnology.  Immune-based biotechnology, for example, utilizes our highly sophisticated and potent immune system to do certain tasks like destroying tumor cells.  Another example, nanobiotechnology, looks at cellular processes not as microscopic things but as large-scale assemblers and builders.  Pathway engineering tries to create entire new sets of reaction pathways so that we might one day be able to convert toxic waste into something useful, such as table sugar! 

Unit 10 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 14.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 10.1: 4.0 hours

☐    Subunit 10.2: 1.0 hour

☐    Subunit 10.3: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 10.4: 3.0 hours

☐    Subunit 10.5: 2.0 hours

☐    Subunit 10.6: 1.0 hour

Unit10 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Discuss the molecular scope of nanobiotechnology.
  • Describe some tools of biowarfare and bioterrorism.
  • Discuss immune-based therapies, antibody engineering, and edible vaccines.
  • Compare and contrastembryonic and adult stem cells.
  • Describe pathway engineering in microbes and in humans.
  • Describe Mycoplasma laboratorium.

10.1 Nanobiotechnology   10.1.1 The Nanometer Scale   - Reading: Wikipedia’s “Nanobiotechnology” Link: Wikipedia’s “Nanobiotechnology” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please study the content of this page.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

10.1.2 Atomic-Scale Visualization   - Reading: Nanoscience’s “Atomic Force Microscopy” Link: Nanoscience’s “Atomic Force Microscopy” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study this page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.1.3 Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: Dove Medical Press Limited: Wim De Jong and Paul Borm’s “Drug Delivery and Nanoparticles: Applications and Hazards” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: Dove Medical Press Limited: Wim De Jong and Paul Borm’s “Drug Delivery and Nanoparticles: Applications and Hazards” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please study the content of this page.  You can access the PDF from the top right corner of the page.  This is a peer-reviewed publication.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.1.4 Biomolecular Motors   - Reading: Nano Science and Technology Institute: Srinivas Iyer, et al.’s “Biomolecular Motors” Link: Nano Science and Technology Institute:  Srinivas Iyer, et al.’s “Biomolecular Motors” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study the content of this page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.1.5 Nanosensors   - Reading: Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s “Nanosensor Probes Single Living Cells” Link: Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s “Nanosensor Probes Single Living Cells” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study this page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.2 Biowarfare   - Reading: Federation of American Scientists’ “Introduction to Biological Weapons” Link: Federation of American Scientists’ “Introduction to Biological Weapons” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study this page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.3 Immunology Biotechnology   10.3.1 Monoclonal Antibodies   - Reading: Davidson College: Department of Biology’s “Monoclonal Antibodies” Link: Davidson College: Department of Biology’s  “Monoclonal Antibodies” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study this page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.3.2 Antibody Engineering and Constructs   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: e-Century Publishing Corporation's American Journal of Translational Research: Peter D. Burbelo et al.’s “Synthetic Biology for Translational Research” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: e-Century Publishing Corporation's American Journal of Translational Research:  Peter D. Burbelo et al.’s “Synthetic Biology for Translational Research” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please study the “Synthetic Biology for Immunoassay Diagnostics” section on this page.  You can access the PDF from the top right corner of the page.  The authors work at the National Institute of Health, Bethesda.  This is a peer-reviewed publication.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.3.3 Antibody Therapies   - Reading: Mayo Clinic’s “Monoclonal Antibody Drugs for Cancer Treatment: How They Work” Link: Mayo Clinic’s “Monoclonal Antibody Drugs for Cancer Treatment: How They Work” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study this page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.3.4 Edible Vaccines   - Reading: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology: Lal, et al.’s “Edible Vaccines: Current Status and Future” Link: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology: Lal, et al.’s “Edible Vaccines: Current Status and Future” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study the content of this page.  The authors work at the University College of Medical Sciences, Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, New Delhi.  This is a peer-reviewed publication.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.3.5 Immune-Based Cancer Therapies   - Reading: John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Cancer Immunotherapy” Link: John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Cancer Immunotherapy” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study the content of this page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.4 Stem Cells   10.4.1 Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells   - Reading: Nature Education’s Scitable: Sonia Y. Hunt’s “Controversies in Treatment Approaches: Gene Therapy, IVF, Stem Cells, and Pharmacogenomics” Link: Nature Education’s Scitable: Sonia Y. Hunt’s “Controversies in Treatment Approaches: Gene Therapy, IVF, Stem Cells, and Pharmacogenomics” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study the “Gene Therapy” and “Stem Cell Therapy” sections on this page.  Totipotency means the ability to differentiate to any type of cell.  Other potencies are more limited in what the cells can transform into. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Khanacademy’s “Embryonic Stem Cells” Link: Khanacademy’s “Embryonic Stem Cells” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Also available in:

    YouTube
     
    Instructions: Please watch the video (20 minutes).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.4.2 New Paradigms for Therapy   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Assisted Reproduction: Jason Hipp and Anthony Atala’s “Tissue Engineering, Stem Cells, Cloning, and Parthenogenesis: New Paradigms for Therapy” Link:  National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Assisted Reproduction: Jason Hipp and Anthony Atala’s “Tissue Engineering, Stem Cells, Cloning, and Parthenogenesis: New Paradigms for Therapy” (HTML or PDF)
  
Instructions: Please study the content of this page. You can access the PDF from the top right corner of the page.  This is a peer-reviewed publication.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.5 Pathway Engineering   10.5.1 Degradation of Starch and Cellulose   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: Journal of Royal Society Interface: Christopher E. French's "Synthetic Biology and Biomass Conversion: a Match Made in Heaven?" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: Journal of Royal Society Interface: Christopher E. French's "Synthetic Biology and Biomass Conversion: a Match Made in Heaven?" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study the “1. Introduction”, " 2.3. Commercial Biomass Conversion Processes", and " 2.4. Transfer of Cellulose Degradation Capability to Heterologous Hosts" sections on this page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Society for General Microbiology's Microbiology: Rainer Kalscheuer, et al.’s “Microdiesel: Escherichia coli Engineered for Fuel Production” Link:  Society for General Microbiology's Microbiology:  Rainer Kalscheuer, et al.’s “Microdiesel: Escherichia coli Engineered for Fuel Production” (HTML or PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please study the content of “Introduction,” “Fig. 1. Pathway of FAEE Biosynthesis in Recombinant E. coli,” “Fig. 4. Map of Plasmid pMicrodiesel,” and “Discussion” on this page.  You can access the PDF from the right-hand side of the page.  Authors work in the Institut für Molekulare Mikrobiologie und Biotechnologie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Germany.  This is a peer-reviewed publication.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.5.2 Biorefining of Fossil Fuel   - Reading: Biomass Magazine: Erin Voegele’s “ORNL Team Converts Cellulose into Isobutanol” Link: Biomass Magazine: Erin Voegele’s “ORNL Team Converts Cellulose into Isobutanol” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study this page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.5.3 Antibiotics Engineering   - Reading: Stanford University: Dawn Levy’s “Genetic Engineering Speeds Development of New Antibiotics” Link: Stanford University: Dawn Levy’s “Genetic Engineering Speeds Development of New Antibiotics” (HTML)
  
Instructions: Please read this page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.5.4 Gene Doping   - Reading: Nature Education’s Scitable: Leslie A. Pray’s “Sports, Gene Doping, and WADA” Link:  Nature Education’s Scitable:  Leslie A. Pray’s “Sports, Gene Doping, and WADA” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study the content of this page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation: "BIO403 Unit 10.5 Assessment" Link: The Saylor Foundation: "BIO403 Unit 10.5 Assessment" (HTML)
     
    Instructions: You will find link to the "Pathway Engineering – Gene Therapy" assessment on this page. This is a multiple choice assessment with one correct answer. Clicking on an answer will bring you to another page. If your answer is correct, then it is acknowledged with a short explanation. Please read the explanation carefully. If you click on a wrong answer, then the click will bring you to a tutorial page. Please study the tutorial page carefully. You will be prompted to return to the assessment and complete it again. Please note thatmetabolic pathway engineering takes place during gene therapy.

10.6 Synthetic Genomics   - Reading: Wikipedia’s “Mycoplasma Laboratorium” Link: Wikipedia’s Mycoplasma Laboratorium (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please study the content of this page.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).