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BIO403: Biotechnology

Unit 6: Genetic Engineering of Animals   Just as biotechnology has given rise to genetically engineered plants, it has also applied many of the same techniques and knowledge to animals.  This unit provides an overview of the current state of animal genetic engineering.  So far we have produced genetically modified mice, fish, flies, hydra, and pigs, just to name a few.  As you can imagine, the applications of modifying animals to suit our needs can have immense consequences and have raised significant concern.  This unit also examines some of the issues surrounding the production of “customized” animals, including the ethics of genetically altering humans.

Unit 6 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 14 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 6.1: 1.0 hour

☐    Subunit 6.2: 5.0 hours

☐    Subunit 6.2.1: 0.5 hour

☐    Subunit 6.2.2: 1.0 hour

☐    Subunit 6.2.3: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 6.2.4: 2.0 hours

☐    Subunit 6.3: 1.0 hour

☐    Subunit 6.4: 3.0 hours

☐    Subunit 6.5: 2.0 hours

☐    Subunit 6.6: 1.0 hour

☐    Subunit 6.7: 1.0 hour

Unit6 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Discuss genetic engineering designs for animals, including knockout and knockin technologies.
  • Describe systematic phenotype studies.
  • Discuss animal cloning with nuclear transplantation.
  • Describe transgenic insects.
  • Analyze applications, such as pharm animals and organ production.
  • Identify ethical concerns related to animal cloning.     

6.1 Creating Transgenic Animals   - Reading: Nature Education’s Scitable: Leslie Pray’s “Recombinant DNA Technology and Transgenic Animals” Link: Nature Education’s Scitable: Leslie Pray’s “Recombinant DNA Technology and Transgenic Animals” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study this page.  Dr. Pray gives an overview on the making of transgenic animals. 
 
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  • Reading: Wellcome Trust: Richard Twyman’s “Transgenic Mice” Link: Wellcome Trust:  Richard Twyman’s “Transgenic Mice” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please study this page including the slide show. 

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6.2 Engineering Design   6.2.1 Chimeric Animal   - Reading: John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Genetic Mosaics” Link: John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Genetic Mosaics” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study this page.  Please note that chimeras can be considered as paternal twins living in one body.  Chimeric individuals may look and function perfectly normal and may stay unnoticed unless genetic testing is performed on their different body parts.
 
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6.2.2 Differential Gene Expression   - Reading: Kenyon College: Dr. Wade Powell’s “Differential Gene Expression and Development” Link: Kenyon College: Dr. Wade Powell’s “Differential Gene Expression and Development” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study this page.  Please note that differential gene expression may result in cell differentiation without the loss of genetic information in the differentiated cell.
  
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6.2.3 Site-Specific Recombination   - Reading: Case Western Reserve University’s “Targeting Vector Design” Link: Case Western Reserve University’s “Targeting Vector Design” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study the content of this page.
 
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6.2.4 Conditional Transgene Expression   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: Society for Endocrinology's Journal of Endocrinology: Ryding, et al.’s “Conditional Transgenic Technologies” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: Society for Endocrinology's Journal of Endocrinology: Ryding, et al.’s  “Conditional Transgenic Technologies” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on “Society for Endocrinology Free Full Text” (in blue box, right top side of the page under PubMed.gov heading), and download the full publication as a PDF.  Study the entire publication.  The authors work at the University of Edinburgh, UK.  This is a peer-reviewed publication.
 
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6.3 Transgenic Mice   6.3.1 Knockout and Knockin Mice   - Reading: Nature Education’s Scitable: “Scientists Can Analyze Gene Function by Deleting Gene Sequences” Link: Nature Education’s Scitable: “Scientists Can Analyze Gene Function by Deleting Gene Sequences” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study this page.  Knockout mice refer to mice that have a selected gene intentionally silenced or removed.
 
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  • Reading: Nature Education’s Scitable: “Transgenic Animals Have Genomes That Have Been Permanently Altered Through Recombinant DNA Technology.” Link: Nature Education’s Scitable:  “Transgenic Animals Have Genomes That Have Been Permanently Altered Through Recombinant DNA Technology.” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please study the diagram.
     
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  • Reading: Nature Education’s Scitable: John Sterling’s “Gene Therapy Restores Vision to Mice” Link: Nature Education’s Scitable: John Sterling’s “Gene Therapy Restores Vision to Mice” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Please listen to the audio (10 minutes).  Knockin mice refer to mice that have a specific gene intentionally added.
     
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6.3.2 Phenotypic Studies   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: CRC Press: Rodriguiz and Wetsel’s Animal Models of Cognitive Impairment: “Chapter 12: Assessments of Cognitive Deficits in Mutant Mice” Link:  National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: CRC Press: Rodriguiz and Wetsel’s Animal Models of Cognitive Impairment: “Chapter 12: Assessments of Cognitive Deficits in Mutant Mice” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study this entire chapter from Levin and Buccafusco (ed.)’s Animal Models of Cognitive Impairment.  The authors are affiliated with Duke University’s Medical Center.
 
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6.4 Genetically Modified Animals   6.4.1 Transgenic Fruit Flies   - Reading: The Company of Biologists’ Development: Venken and Bellen’s “Transgenesis Upgrades for Drosophila melanogaster” Link: The Company of Biologists’ Development:  Venken and Bellen’s “Transgenesis Upgrades for Drosophila melanogaster” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please study the following sections: “Summary,” “Introduction,” “Fig.1 Drosophila Transgenesis,” “Box 4. Site-Specific Recombinases and Integrases,” and “Future Applications.”  You can access the PDF from the right-hand side of the page.
 
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6.4.2 Transgenic Mosquitoes   - Reading: Wiley Online Library: Yamamoto, et al.’s “ Flying Vaccinator; a Transgenic Mosquito Delivers a Leishmania Vaccine via Blood Feeding” Link: Wiley Online Library: Yamamoto, et al.’s “Flying Vaccinator; a Transgenic Mosquito Delivers a Leishmania Vaccine via Blood Feeding” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please study the “Abstract,” “Introduction,” “Generation of Transgenic Lines,” and “Antibody Responses to mDsRed-SP15 in Mice Exposed to Transgenic Mosquitoes” sections on this page.  You can access the PDF for the right-hand side of the page under “Article Tools.”  The authors work in the Department of Infection and Immunity at the Jichi Medical University, Japan.  This is a peer-reviewed publication.
 
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6.4.3 Transgenic Insects   - Reading: Action BioScience: Thomas A. Miller’s “Designing Insects” Link:  Action BioScience:  Thomas A. Miller’s “Designing Insects” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this page.  Dr. Miller works as a professor of entomology at the University of California, Riverside.
 
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6.5 Cloning Animals   6.5.1 Nuclear Transplantation and Dolly   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Wiley-Liss: Strachan and Read’s Human Molecular Genetics, 2nd edition: “Chapter 21: Genetic Manipulation of Animals” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Wiley-Liss: Strachan and Read’s Human Molecular Genetics, 2nd edition: “Chapter 21: Genetic Manipulation of Animals” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study “Manipulating Animals by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer” on this page, including the “Principles and Practice of Animal Cloning” and “The Successful Cloning of an Adult Animal Has Major Implications for Research, Medicine and Society” sections.
 
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  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: Canadian Medical Association Journal: Leigh Turner’s “A Sheep Named Dolly” Link:  National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: Canadian Medical Association Journal:  Leigh Turner’s “A Sheep Named Dolly” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please study this publication. Click on PDF under the title to download the full text.  Author Turner works at the Hastings Center.

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6.5.2 Livestock Improvement   - Reading: Nature Education’s Scitable: Swanson et al.’s “Extraordinary Salmon Growth” Link: Nature Education’s Scitable:  Swanson et al.’s “Extraordinary Salmon Growth” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please study this entire paper.  The authors work at  Harvard Medical School.
 
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6.5.3 Premature Aging   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: Jie Xu and Xiangzhong Yang’s “Will Cloned Animals Suffer Premature Aging—The Story at the End of Clones’ Chromosomes” Link:  National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology:  Jie Xu and Xiangzhong Yang’s “Will Cloned Animals Suffer Premature Aging—The Story at the End of Clones’ Chromosomes” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please study the content of this page.  You can access the PDF from the top right corner of the page.  This is a peer-reviewed publication.
 
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  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "BIO403 Unit 6.5 Assessment"

    Link: The Saylor Foundation's "BIO403 Unit 6.5 Assessment" (HTML)
     
    Instructions: You will find link to the "Pet Cloning" assessment on this page.  This is a multiple choice assessment with one correct answer.  Clicking on an answer will bring you to another page.  If your answer is correct, then it is acknowledged with a short explanation.  Please read the explanation carefully.  If you clicked on the wrong answer, then the click will bring you to a tutorial page.  Please study the tutorial page carefully.  You will be prompted to return to the assessment and complete it again.  Please note that this assessment is focusing on animal cloning, which is very expensive, but commercially available.  The commercially available genetically engineered animals are not covered by this assessment.

6.6 Applications   6.6.1 “Pharm” Animals   - Reading: John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Transgenic Animals” Link:  John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Transgenic Animals” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the “Transgenic Sheep and Goats”  and “Transgenic Chickens” sections on this page.
 
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  • Reading: Iowa State University: David F. Betsch’s “Pharmaceutical Production from Transgenic Animals” Link:  Iowa State University:  David F. Betsch’s “Pharmaceutical Production from Transgenic Animals” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please study this page.
     
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6.6.2 Organ Transplantation   - Reading: John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Organ Transplants” Link:  John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages:  “Organ Transplants” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read starting with “What are the future prospects for transplantation?” to the end this page.
 
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6.7 Bioethics   6.7.1 Designer Children   - Reading: Nature Education’s Scitable: Leslie A. Pray’s “Embryo Screening and the Ethics of Human Genetic Engineering” Link: Nature Education’s Scitable:  Leslie A. Pray’s “Embryo Screening and the Ethics of Human Genetic Engineering” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study this page.  Dr. Pray reviews opposing opinions and recent practice on preimplantation genetic diagnosis.  She is challenging you by asking "What do you think?:" should we improve human genome, or should we focus on the danger of misuse?
 
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6.7.2 Loss of Biodiversity   - Reading: Sierra Club’s “Genetic Engineering at a Historic Crossroads” Link: Sierra Club’s “Genetic Engineering at a Historic Crossroads” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read “Historic turning point.” 
 
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6.7.3 Cloning Pets   - Reading: MIT’s Technology Review: Emily Singer’s “The Dark Side of Pet Cloning” Link: MIT’s Technology Review:  Emily Singer’s “The Dark Side of Pet Cloning” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study this page.  Please note that genetically identical animals have different personalities, just like identical twins.
 
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6.7.4 Transgenic Animals for Art   - Reading: KAC’s version of Jeremy Manier’s “Art Takes a Genetic Engineering Leap” Link: KAC’s version of Jeremy Manier’s “Art Takes a Genetic Engineering Leap” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this page.  This article was originally published in the Chicago Tribune on September 19, 2000.
 
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6.7.5 Conflict with Religion   - Reading: University of Hawaii, Honolulu: Professor Ronald C. Pine’s version of Bob Sullivan’s “Religious Views of Cloning Do Not Agree” Link:  University of Hawaii, Honolulu: Professor Ronald C. Pine’s version of Bob Sullivan’s “Religious Views of Cloning Do Not Agree” (HTML)          
 
Instructions: Please read this page.
 
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