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BIO402: Pathobiology

Unit 1: Molecules, Cells and Tissues   This unit will provide you with a basic understanding of the human body’s organization at the molecular and cellular level.  Molecules interact and combine with one another to provide the components necessary for life and to create organisms made up of cells and tissues. 

Individual chemical compounds come together to create organelles and cellular structures that create the basic unit of life, the cell.  Each cell has unique properties and structure based upon its function. For example, cells lining the oral cavity (mouth) and gastrointestinal track are different from red blood cells, carrying oxygen or neurons (nerve cells), carrying an electrochemical signal.  Single cells combine to form the four tissue types, epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle.  All of the body’s organs and organ systems are constructed from these four tissue types.  Once you have a basic understanding of molecules, cells, and tissues in their normal state, we will explore them in altered or diseased states.

Unit 1 Time Advisory
This unit will take approximately 12 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 1.1: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 1.3: 4 hours

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Explain how atoms combine to form larger molecules such as proteins and carbohydrates.
  • Describe the function of cellular organelles and how these structures make up cells.
  • Outline the four major types of tissues and give examples of each.

1.1 Atoms and Molecules   - Web Media: Andrew Rader’s “Chem4Kids” Link:  Andrew Rader’s “Chem4Kids” (HTML)

 Instructions:  This is an excellent website that will introduce you
to the basics of atoms and molecules.  Do not let its name fool
you.  You should go through each of the modules for Matter,
Elements, Atoms, Reactions, and Biochemistry.  At the end of each
module, please take the quiz to assess what you have learned.  If
you have difficulty with the quiz, review the material and take the
quiz a second (or even third!) time.  

 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.2 Cells   - Reading: NCBI’s “A Science Primer” Link: NCBI’s “A Science Primer” (HTML)

 Instructions:  This reading will introduce you to the basic unit of
life—the cell.  Inside the cell, you will find organelles (literally
little organs) that enable the cell to function.  These organelles
are suspended in a gel-like material known as cytoplasm.  Cells are
made up of the molecules that we previously explored.  Make sure to
take notes on how the cell is organized and how the structure of the
cell is important for its function.  

 *Note: This resource has temporarily been replaced by an archived
version from the Internet Archive's "Wayback Machine." You can find
more information about the Internet Archive and the Wayback Machine
[here](https://archive.org/about/faqs.php#The_Wayback_Machine).*  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Cellular Organelles” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Cellular Organelles” (HTML)

    Instructions: Complete this assessment. Match the key terms with their corresponding definition.

    Completing this assessment should take approximately 20 minutes.

1.3 Tissues   - Web Media: Slideshare: “Tissue” Link: Slideshare: “Tissue” (Adobe Flash)

 Instructions:  Read the slides, paying careful attention to the
tissue images displayed throughout.  Click on “Full” below the slide
screen to view this slide show in full screen.   

 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Tissues Characteristics” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Tissues Characteristics” (HTML)

    Instructions: Complete this assessment. Match the key terms with their corresponding definition.

    Completing this assessment should take approximately 20 minutes.