Loading...

BIO401: Biochemistry

Unit 10: Biochemistry of Signaling   All organisms share some sophisticated and complex pathways to respond to the internal and external changes of their environment. There is a signaling pathway for just about everything, from shivering when it is cold to making stomach acid when you eat to respond to dangerous bacteria. Although they may be sophisticated and complex, these pathways all share some fundamental principles. In this unit, we will cover these fundamental principles and use specific examples to show how these principles are applied to real signaling pathways. We will first go over the shared features of all signaling pathways, and then cover each of the six basic pathways.

Unit 10 Time Advisory
This unit should take you 15 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 10.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 10.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 10.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 10.4: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 10.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 10.6: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 10.7: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 10.8: 1 hour

Unit10 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Explain key overall concepts in cell signaling.
  • Describe a few specific examples of cell signaling.

10.1 General Characteristics of Signaling   - Reading: The Open University: Cell Signaling: "Signal Transduction Mechanisms" Link: The Open University: Cell Signaling: "Signal Transduction Mechanisms" (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read through all of section 1.5 on the linked page above.  This information covers all of section 10.1. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.1.1 Affinity and Specificity   10.1.2 Cooperativity   10.1.3 Amplification   10.1.4 Desensitization   10.1.5 Integration of Signals   10.2 Gated Ion Channels   10.2.1 Membrane Potentials   - Reading: YouTube: Thomas Kemmerly, June Cheng, Adrienne Williams, and Diane K. O'Dowd's "Membrane Potential" Link: YouTube: Thomas Kemmerly, June Cheng, Adrienne Williams, and Diane K. O'Dowd's "Membrane Potential" (YouTube)
 
Instructions:  Watch the video about membrane potential.  Be sure that you understand how proteins in the membrane help to maintain this potential.  This video also covers section 10.2.2.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.2.2 Ion Concentrations   10.2.3 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor   - Reading: University of Toronto: Dr. Danton H. O'Day's Human Cell Biology: "Muscarinic Receptors: This Lecture Ends in Tears" Link: University of Toronto: Dr. Danton H. O'Day’s Human Cell Biology: "Muscarinic Receptors: This Lecture Ends in Tears" (PDF)
 
Instructions:  Click on the link for Lecture 8, "Mucscarinic Receptors:  This lecture ends in tears" and read through the mechansim of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.2.4 Neuronal Synapse   - Web Media: Great Pacific Media's "Neuron Synapse" Link: Great Pacific Media's "Neuron Synapse" (YouTube)
 
Instructions:  Watch the video about how information is passed from one neuron to another.  Keep in mind the principles of ion channels.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above

10.3 Receptor Enzymes   10.3.1 Insulin Receptor Model   - Reading: University of Arizona: Biochemistry 460 Proteins and Metabolism: "Lecture 23" Link: University of Arizona:  Biochemistry 460 Proteins and Metabolism: "Lecture 23" (Microsoft PowerPoint)
 
Instructions: Go to the page in the link and find the set of slides for lecture 23.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.3.2 Guanylyl Cyclase Receptors   - Reading: Wikipedia: "Guanylate cyclase" Link: Wikipedia: "Guanylate cyclase" (PDF)
 
Instructions: Review, briefly, the function of guanylyl cyclase receptors.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

10.4 G-protein Coupled Receptors   - Reading: University of Arizona: Biochemistry 460 Proteins and Metabolism: "Lecture 22" Link: University of Arizona:  Biochemistry 460 Proteins and Metabolism: "Lecture 22" (Microsoft PowerPoint)
 
Instructions: Go to the page in the link and find the set of slides for lecture 22.  This information covers all of section 10.4.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.4.1 Adrenergic Receptor Model   10.4.2 Secondary Messengers   10.4.2.1 cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate   10.4.2.2 Diacylglycerol   10.4.2.3 IP3 (Inositol Triphosphate)   10.4.2.4 Calcium   Note: In learning about secondary messengers, please focus on the following: cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate), diacylglycerol, IP3 (inositol triphosphate), and calcium. Be sure to know the different downstream effectors of each of these messengers.

10.5 Steroid Signaling   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: Geoffry M. Cooper The Cell a molecular approach 2nd Ed: "Signaling Molecules and their Receptors" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: Geoffry M. Cooper The Cell a molecular approach 2nd Ed:  "Signaling Molecules and their Receptors" (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read through the section about signaling molecules focusing on the section about steroid hormones.  This covers all of section 10.5.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.5.1 Hormone Response Elements   10.5.2 Transcriptional Activation   10.6 Protein Kinases   10.6.1 Phosphorylation of Amino Acids   - Reading: The Open University: Cell Signaling: "Protein Kinases" Link: The Open University:  Cell Signaling: "Protein Kinases" (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read through the introduction section of unit 3.6 on the linked page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.6.2 JAK (Janus Kinse)-STAT (Signal Transduction and Transcription) Model   - Reading: The Open University: Cell Signaling: "Protein Kinases" Link: The Open University:  Cell Signaling: "Protein Kinases" (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read through the section about JAK-STAT signaling on the linked page.  Perform the assessment questions if you like.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.6.3 MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases)   - Reading: The Open University: Cell Signaling: "Protein Kinases" Link: The Open University:  Cell Signaling: "Protein Kinases" (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read through the section about MAPK signaling on the linked page above.  Perform the assessment questions if you like.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.6.4 Receptor Tyrosine Kinases   - Reading: University of Arizona: Dr. Miriam Ziegler’s Biochemistry 460 Proteins and Metabolism: "Lecture 23" Link: University of Arizona: Dr. Miriam Ziegler’s Biochemistry 460 Proteins and Metabolism: "Lecture 23" (Microsoft PowerPoint)
 
Instructions: Go to the page in the link and find the set of slides for lecture 23..
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.6.5 Serine/Theronine Protein Kinases   - Reading: The Open University: Cell Signaling: "Protein Kinases" Link: The Open University:  Cell Signaling: "Protein Kinases" (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read through the section about serine/threonine kinases on the linked page above.  Perform the assessment questions if you like.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.7 Adhesion Receptors   10.7.1 Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: Geoffry M. Cooper The Cell a molecular approach 2nd Ed: "Cell-cell interactions" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: Geoffry M. Cooper The Cell a molecular approach 2nd Ed:  "Cell-cell interactions" (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read the linked page above in order to learn about cell adhesion molecules.  This information ceovers section 10.7.1-10.7.3.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.7.2 Immunoglobulins   10.7.3 Integrins   10.7.4 Cadherins and Selectins   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: Geoffry M. Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2nd Ed: "Signal Transduction and the Cytoskeleton" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: Geoffry M. Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2nd Ed: "Signal Transduction and the Cytoskeleton" (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read about integrin proteins and their role in cell attachment.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

10.8 Sensory Transduction in Vision, Olfaction, and Gustation   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Photoreceptor molecules in the eye detect visible light,” "A wide variety of organic compounds are detected by olfaction,” and "Taste is a combination of senses that function by different mechanisms" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Photoreceptor molecules in the eye detect visible light,” (HTML) "A wide variety of organic compounds are detected by olfaction," (HTML) and "Taste is a combination of senses that function by different mechanisms" (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read through the three links above to understand how signaling principles are used in vision, taste, and hearing.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.