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BIO401: Biochemistry

Unit 9: Biochemistry of Genes and Chromosomes   We now focus on the core biochemistry topics of DNA and RNA. Much of this unit deals with two major cellular processes, transcription and translation. Each topic in this unit can be quite complex, and looking at visual figures is strongly recommended to aid in your understanding. If you have taken cell biology or molecular biology, some of these topics will seem familiar; however, now we are focusing on the reactions that drive these events rather than learning about the events themselves.

Unit 9 Time Advisory
This unit should take you 6 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 9.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 9.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 9.3: 2 hours

Unit9 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Explain why DNA is used as the genetic material of most organisms.
  • List the steps of DNA replication.
  • Describe how DNA is repaired.
  • Describe the process of RNA transcription.

9.1 Chromosomes   9.1.1 DNA Supercoiling   - Reading: The Open University: Nucleic Acids and Chromatin: "Higher Order DNA Structures" Link: The Open University: Nucleic Acids and Chromatin: "Higher Order DNA Structures" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read about the complex structure of DNA and then perform the self-assessment questions to determine how well you understand the material.  This resource covers section 9.1.1 and 9.1.2.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

9.1.2 Topoisomerases   9.1.3 Chromosomal Packing   - Reading: The Open University: Nucleic Acids and Chromatin: "Introduction" Link: The Open University: Nucleic Acids and Chromatin: "Introduction" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read about the complex structure of DNA and then perform the self-assessment.  This resource covers section 9.1.1 and 9.1.2.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

9.2 DNA Biochemistry   9.2.1 DNA Replication   - Reading: Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative: Modern Biology: "Modern Biology" Link: Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative: Modern Biology: "Modern Biology" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link and choose "Enter Course" to view the course material.  Choose module 10 under the unit 4 tab on the left side of the page.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

9.2.2 Base-Excision Repair   - Reading: University of Arizona: Dr. Don P. Bourque’s General Nucleic Acid Biochemistry: "Lecture Notes" Link: University of Arizona: Dr. Don P. Bourque’sGeneral Nucleic Acid Biochemistry: "Lecture Notes" (PDF)
 
Instructions: Go to the page in the link and find the "lecture" tab at the bottom.  Go into the lecture page and find the slides for "Chapter 28." This covers sections 9.2.2-9.2.4.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

9.2.3 Nucleotide-excision Repair   9.2.4 Nucleotide Dimer Repair   9.2.5 Holliday Recombination Model   Note: A visual aid is strongly recommended here to see how the Holliday model actually recombines separate branches of DNA. There are even some video clips to be found that can be of great help.

  • Web Media: Youtube: Garland Science's Holliday Junction Link: Youtube: Garland Science's Holliday Junction(YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this video, which depicts the Holliday recombination model.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

9.2.6 Transposable Element Recombination   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Transposon” Link: Wikipedia: “Transposon” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this entry to learn about the function of transposons.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

9.3 RNA Biochemistry   9.3.1 DNA-Dependent Synthesis of RNA   - Reading: Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative: Modern Biology: "Modern Biology" Link: Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative: Modern Biology: "Modern Biology" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link to view the course material.  On the left side of the page, choose unit 4, module 11 and read through the material.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

9.3.2 RNA Polymerases   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Eukaryotic Transcription and Translation Are Separated in Space and Time" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Eukaryotic Transcription and Translation Are Separated in Space and Time" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read about the different types of RNA polymerase enzymes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

9.3.3 Modification of pre-mRNA   - Reading: University of Arizona: Dr. Don P. Bourque’s General Nucleic Acid Biochemistry: "Lecture Notes" Link: University of Arizona: Dr. Don P. Bourque’sGeneral Nucleic Acid Biochemistry: "Lecture Notes" (PDF)
 
Instructions: Go to the page in the link and find the "lecture" tab at the bottom.  Go into the lecture page and find the slides for "Chapter 29."  This covers section 9.3.3-9.3.5.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

9.3.4 Group I and II Intron Processing   9.3.5 Catalytic RNA