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BIO401: Biochemistry

Unit 7: Lipids   Lipids are the last molecular building blocks that we cover in this course. They are a very diverse group of molecules, all classified together by their insolubility with water. There are many types of lipids, much more than 20 amino acids or 4 nucleotides, and they have many different functions. For example, some provide energy; you may know these as fats! Others are the major component of cell membranes, while still others are powerful signaling molecules, including estrogen and testosterone. In this unit, we will cover all the major types of lipids, grouped according to their functions.

Unit 7 Time Advisory
This unit should take you 13 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 7.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 7.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 7.4: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.5: 3 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Describe the structure and function of lipids.

7.1 Basic Lipid Characteristics   - Reading: University of Akron: James K Hardy's General, Organic and Biochemistry: "Lipids" Link: University of Akron: James K Hardy's General, Organic and Biochemistry: "Lipids" (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link and select the "Lipids" link on the left side of the page to connect with the relevant set of slides.   This covers all of section 7.1.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.1.1 Hydrophobicity   7.1.2 Amphiphile   7.1.3 Hydrocarbon Component   7.2 Storage Lipids   - Reading: Ohio State University: Dr. Stephen T. Abedon’s Biology 1025: "Lipids" Link: Ohio State University: Dr.  Stephen T. Abedon’s Biology 1025: "Lipids"(HTML)
 
Instructions: Read through the entire page about Lipids.  Take the quiz at the end for self-assessment.  This covers all of section 7.2.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.2.1 Fatty Acids   7.2.2 Triacylglycerols   7.2.3 Unsaturated and Saturated Fats   7.2.4 Cis and Trans Fats   7.3 Membrane Lipids   7.3.1 Phospholipids   - Reading: University of Arizona: Biochemistry 462a: "Lipids" Link: University of Arizona: Biochemistry 462a: "Lipids" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Review the structure and function of lipids.  Focus on membrane lipids.  This covers subunits 7.3.1-7.3.5.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.3.2 Glycolipids   7.3.3 Glycerophospholipids   7.3.4 Ether Lipids   7.3.5 Sphingolipids   7.3.6 Sterols   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Cholesterol Is a Lipid Based on a Steroid Nucleus" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Cholesterol Is a Lipid Based on a Steroid Nucleus" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this webpage to learn how cholesterol is made and to discover its functions.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.4 Signaling Lipids   7.4.1 Phosphatidylinositol   - Reading: University of Arizona: Dr. Miriam Ziegler’s Biochemistry 460 Proteins and Metabolism: "Lecture 18" Link: University of Arizona: Dr. Miriam Ziegler’s Biochemistry 460 Proteins and Metabolism: "Lecture 18" (Microsoft PowerPoint)
 
Instructions: Go to the page via the link and find the set of slides for lecture 18.  This covers sections 7.4.1 and 7.4.2.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.4.2 Sphingosine   7.4.3 Eicasinoids   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Eicosanoid” Link: Wikipedia: “Eicosanoid” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read about another type of signaling lipid, the eicosanoid.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

7.4.4 Steroid Hormones   Note: All steroid hormones, from progesterone to testosterone, share the same precursor molecule, cholesterol! Be sure to under how cholesterol turns into these signaling hormones.

  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Important Derivatives of Cholesterol Include Bile Salts and Steroid Hormones" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Important Derivatives of Cholesterol Include Bile Salts and Steroid Hormones" (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read how cholesterol is used to derive steroid hormones.
    Note: All steroid hormones, from progesterone to testosterone, share the same precursor molecule, cholesterol!  Be sure to under how cholesterol turns into these signaling hormones.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.5 Cofactor Lipids   - Reading: University of Arizona: Biochemistry 462a: "Lipids" Link: University of Arizona: Biochemistry 462a: "Lipids" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Review the structure and function of lipids.  Focus on the sections for cofactor lipids.  This covers 7.5.1-7.5.3.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.5.1 Fat-Soluble Vitamins   7.5.2 Ubiquinones   7.5.3 Dolichols