Loading...

BIO401: Biochemistry

Unit 6: Nucleic Acids   Our last building block is nucleic acids. There are two types of nucleotides and five basic nucleobases that are you familiar with. As simple as this seems, these five carry all of the necessary information to create complex life, such as ourselves. This unit examines some shared features of nucleic acids, as well as some general features of DNA and RNA molecules. Also, we will examine some of the other uses of nucleobases and nucleotides, as it is not solely for genetics. Lastly, like all other molecular building blocks, there are pathways to synthesize and recycle them, and we will learn about this as well.

Unit 6 Time Advisory
This unit should take you 12 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 6.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 6.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 6.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 6.4: 1 hours

☐    Subunit 6.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 6.6: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 6.7: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 6.8: 2 hours

Unit6 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Describe the structure of nucleic acids.
  • Differentiate between ribose and deoxyribose derivatives in terms of structure and function.
  • Compare and contrast the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA genomes.
  • Compare and contrast the structure of DNA and RNA and explain how these structural differences contribute to their different cellular functions.

6.1 Nucleic Acid Components   - Reading: University of Akron: James K. Hardy's General, Organic and Biochemistry: "Nucleic Acids" Link: University of Akron: James K. Hardy's General, Organic and Biochemistry: "Nucleic Acids" (PDF)
 
Instructions: Go to the page in the link and find "nucleic acids" on the left side of the page.  Click to view the relevant material.  This covers all of 6.1. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.1.1 Ribose and Deoxyribose   6.1.2 Nitrogenous Base   6.1.3 Phosphate Groups   6.2 Purines   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: “Nucleic Acid Consists of Four Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar Phosphate Backbone” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Nucleic Acid Consists of Four Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar Phosphate Backbone" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read about the structure of nucleic acids.  This covers all of subunits 6.2 and 6.3.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.2.1 Adenine   6.2.2 Guanine   6.3 Pyrimidines   6.3.1 Cytosine   6.3.2 Uracil   6.3.3 Thymidine   6.4 Base Pairing   - Reading: The Open University: Nucleic Acids and Chromatin: "General Features of Higher-Order Nucleic Acid Structure" Link: The Open University: Nucleic Acids and Chromatin: "General Features of Higher-Order Nucleic Acid Structure" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read about DNA bade pairing rules.  Perform the self-assessment questions if you like.  This covers all of section 6.4.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.4.1 Adenine-Thymidine   6.4.2 Cytosine-Guanine   6.4.3 Hydrogen Bonding   6.5 DNA Structure   6.5.1 DNA as a Nucleotide Polymer   - Reading: Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative: Biochemistry Spring 2010: "Nucleic Acid Structure" Link: Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative: Biochemistry Spring 2010: "Nucleic Acid Structure" (HTML)
 
Instuctions: This reading reviews the principles of DNA structure.  Perform the included assessemnts if you would like to test yourself.  Click on the link and choose "Enter Course" to view the relevant material.  This material covers 6.5.1-6.5.2.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.5.2 Double Helix Stabilization   Note: There are many factors that help the stabilization of the double helix structure, but only one stands out as providing the most support. Please make sure you know which one it is and why it is the main one.

6.5.3 Circular DNA   - Reading: The Open University: Nucleic Acids and Chromatin: "The Eubacterial Chromosome" Link: The Open University: Nucleic Acids and Chromatin: "The Eubacterial Chromosome" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read about circular bacterial chromosomes.  Compare to eukaryotic chromosomes.  Perform the self assessment questions if you would like to test yourself.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.6 RNA Motifs   - Reading: The Open University: Nucleic Acids and Chromatin: "RNA Structure and Function" Link: The Open University: Nucleic Acids and Chromatin: "RNA Structure and Function" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Familiarize yourself with RNA and its structure.  This covers all of 6.6.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.6.1 Stems   6.6.2 Loops   6.6.3 Combinations   6.7 Synthesis of RNA and DNA   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of W.H. Freeman(publisher), Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer (authors) Biochemistry 5th Edition: “Chapter 15 Nucleotide Biosynthesis”

Link: Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of W.H. Freeman(publisher),
Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer (authors) Biochemistry 5<sup>th</sup>
Edition: “[Chapter 15 Nucleotide
Biosynthesis](http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21216/)”  

 Instructions: Read the entire webpage.  
  

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

6.7.1 Synthetic Pathways of Purines   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of W.H. Freeman(publisher), Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer (authors) Biochemistry 5th Edition: “Section 25.2 Purine Bases Can Be Synthesized de Novo or Recycled by Salvage Pathways”

Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of W.H. Freeman(publisher), Berg,
Tymoczko, and Stryer (authors) Biochemistry 5<sup>th</sup>
Edition: “[Section 25.2 Purine Bases Can Be Synthesized de Novo or
Recycled by Salvage
Pathways](http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22385/)”  (HTML)  
  

Instructions: Read the entire webpage.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

6.7.2 Synthetic Pathway of Pyrimidines   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of W.H. Freeman(publisher), Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer (authors) Biochemistry 5th Edition: “Section 25.1 In de Novo Synthesis, the Pyrimidine Ring is Assembled from Bicarbonate, Aspartate, and Glutamine”

Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of W.H. Freeman(publisher), Berg,
Tymoczko, and Stryer (authors) Biochemistry 5<sup>th</sup> Edition:
“[Section 25.1 In de Novo Synthesis, the Pyrimidine Ring is
Assembled from Bicarbonate, Aspartate, and
Glutamine](http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22447/)” (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read the entire webpage.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

6.8 Other Functions of Nucleic Acids   6.8.1 Nucleotide Chemical Energy   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Metabolism Is Composed of Many Coupled, Interconnecting Reactions" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Metabolism Is Composed of Many Coupled, Interconnecting Reactions" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read how nucleotides are used for energy in the cell.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.8.2 Enzyme Cofactors   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "NAD+, FAD, and Coenzyme A Are Formed from ATP" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "NAD+, FAD, and Coenzyme A Are Formed from ATP" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Learn how some cofactors are derived from ATP.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.8.3 Signaling Molecules   - Reading: The Open University: Cell Signaling: "Introduction" Link: The Open University: Cell Signaling: "Introduction" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read through the overview of cell signaling.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.