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BIO401: Biochemistry

Unit 5: Carbohydrates   This unit covers carbohydrates (also called sugars), the second of four molecular building blocks. As you know, carbohydrates are simply molecules of carbon and water—hence the name of “carbo” and “hydrate.” The simplest carbohydrates are called monosaccharides, the equivalent of amino acids. Just as amino acids give rise to many different proteins, monosaccharides give rise to many different polysaccharides, although there are not as many polysaccharides as there are proteins. The most important polysaccharide is glucose, the primary energy molecule of living organisms. Plants make glucose as the primary product of photosynthesis, and we use it as our primary fuel. We will learn about many of the other important sugars, such as sucrose, lactose, and starch. Sugars are also important signaling molecules in the cell that help direct cellular traffic. The synthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates is covered in detail in the Unit 8: Metabolism, so we will only preview it here.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
This unit should take you 12 hours to complete.

☐     Subunit 5.1: 2 hours

☐     Subunit 5.2: 2 hours

☐     Subunit 5.3: 1 hour

☐     Subunit 5.4: 1 hour

☐     Subunit 5.5: 1 hour

☐     Subunit 5.6: 1 hour

☐     Subunit 5.7: 2 hours

☐     Subunit 5.8: 2 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Define the structure of carbohydrates.
  • Describe the synthesis and break-down pathways of carbohydrates.

5.1 Stereochemistry   5.1.1 Fischer Projection   - Reading: University of Calgary: Organic Chemistry: "Stereochemistry" Link: University of Calgary: Organic Chemistry: "Stereochemistry" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Fischer projections are a means of depicting chemical structures.  Be sure to understand how this is done.
 
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5.1.2 Chiral Carbon   - Reading: University of Calgary: Organic Chemistry: "Stereochemistry" Link: University of Calgary: Organic Chemistry: "Stereochemistry" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Be sure you understand what the term "chiral" means.
 
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5.1.3 Optical Activity   - Reading: University of Calgary: Organic Chemistry: "Stereochemistry" Link: University of Calgary: Organic Chemistry: "Stereochemistry" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read about optical activity in terms of biological molecules.
 
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5.2 Monosaccharides   - Reading: Dr. Stephen T. Abedon’s Biology 1025: "Carbohydrates" Link: Ohio State University: Dr. Stephen T. Abedon’s Biology 1025: "Carbohydrates" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read through the entire page about carbohydrates.  Take the quiz at the end for self-assessment.  This covers the entirety of subunit 5.2.
 
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5.2.1 Classification   5.2.2 Aldohexoses and Glucose   5.2.3 Ketohexoses and Fructose   5.2.4 Furanose and Pyranose Rings   5.3 Disaccharides   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed by Linkage of Monosaccharides" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed by Linkage of Monosaccharides" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read how monosaccharides are linked to make more complex molecules.  This covers all of sections 5.3 and 5.4.
 
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5.3.1 Sucrose   5.3.2 Lactose   5.3.3 Maltose   5.4 Polysaccharides   5.4.1 Glycosidic Linkages   5.4.2 Glycogen, Amylose, and Starch   5.4.3 Cellulose   5.4.4 Chitin   5.4.5 Peptidoglycan   5.4.6 Dextran   5.5 Lectin and the Sugar Code   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Lectins Are Specific Carbohydrate Binding Proteins" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Lectins Are Specific Carbohydrate Binding Proteins" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read about lectins and understand their function.
 
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5.6 Artificial Sugar Substitutes   - Reading: 3Dchem.com: Artificial sweetener: "Aspartame, Artificial Sweetener" Link: 3Dchem.com: Artificial sweetener: "Aspartame, Artificial Sweetener" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Compare the nature and structure of different chemical sweeteners.  This covers all of subunit 5.6.
 
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5.6.1 Aspartame   5.6.2 Saccharin   5.6.3 Sucralose   5.7 Glycoconjugates   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Carbohydrates Can Be Attached to Proteins to Form Glycoproteins" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "Carbohydrates Can Be Attached to Proteins to Form Glycoproteins"(HTML)
 
Instructions: Read how glycoproteins are formed.  This reading covers 5.7.1 and 5.7.2.
 
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5.7.1 Glycosylation   5.7.2 Glycoproteins   5.7.3 Glycolipids   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "There Are Three Common Types of Membrane Lipids" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: W.H. Freeman and Co.’s Biochemistry Fifth Ed.: "There Are Three Common Types of Membrane Lipids" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read about the function and structure of glycolipids.
 
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5.7.4 Proteoglycans   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Proteoglycan” Link: Wikipedia: “Proteoglycan” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read about proteoglycan function and structure.
 
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5.8 Synthesis and Breakdown   5.8.1 Glycolysis   - Reading: Carnegie Mellon University: Biochemistry I: "Glycolysis" Link: Carnegie Mellon University: Biochemistry I: "Glycolysis" (HTML)

 Also available in:  
 [PDF](http://www.bio.cmu.edu/courses/03231/LecF04/Lec29/lec29.html)  

 Instructions: Read an overview about the process of glycolysis.  To
view in PDF format, please follow the "PDF" link above, and select
the link near the top of the page.  

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5.8.2 Gluconeogenesis   - Reading: University of Guelph: Structure and Function in Biochemistry: "Lecture 15" Link: University of Guelph: Structure and Function in Biochemistry: "Lecture 15" (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link and find "lecture 15" to download the relevant slides. 
 
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