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BIO310: Developmental Biology

Unit 6: Later Embryonic Development   Once germ layers have been formed and patterning has begun, the embryo can begin to develop those complex tissues and organs it will need for adult life.  This unit will detail the formation of tissues and organs arising from each of the three germ layers. You will learn that each germ layer gives rise to very specific structures.

Unit6 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Identify which later tissues and structures arise from which germ layers and early-embryonic structures.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the processes of later development, especially limb development, and the roles of specific genes, molecules, and tissue areas in these processes.

6.1 The Central Nervous System (CNS) and Epidermis   6.1.1 The Neural Tube   - Reading: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Formation of the Neural Tube” and “Differentiation of the Neural Tube” Link: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Formation of the Neural Tube” (HTML) and “Differentiation of the Neural Tube” (HTML)
 
Instructions: In “Formation of the Neural Tube,” read only the introductory paragraph and all figures (Figs. 12.3-12.9). Read all of “Differentiation of the Neural Tube,” along with all figures (Figs.12.10-12.14).
 
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6.1.2 The Neural Crest   - Reading: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “The Neural Crest” Link: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “The Neural Crest” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section in its entirety along with all associated figures (Figs. 13.1-13.10).
 
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6.1.3 The Epidermis   - Reading: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Snapshot Summary: CNS and Epidermis” Link: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Snapshot Summary: CNS and Epidermis” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section in its entirety.
 
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6.2 Mesoderm   6.2.1 Paraxial Mesoderm   - Reading: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Paraxial Mesoderm” Link: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Paraxial Mesoderm” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section in its entirety along with all associated figures (Figs. 14.2-14.9).
 
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6.2.2 Intermediate Mesoderm   - Reading: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Intermediate Mesoderm” Link: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Intermediate Mesoderm” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the introductory sentence and the subsection on “Progression of Kidney Types” along with Figure 14.18.
 
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6.2.3 Lateral-Plate Mesoderm   - Reading: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Snapshot Summary: Lateral Mesoderm and Endoderm” and “Lateral-Plate Mesoderm” and “Endoderm” Link: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Snapshot Summary: Lateral Mesoderm and Endoderm” (HTML) and “Lateral-Plate Mesoderm” (HTML) and “Endoderm” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read all of the “Snapshot Summary” and read all
figures (but no other text) associated with “Lateral-Plate Mesoderm”
(15.1-15.25) and “Endoderm” (15.26-15.33).  This will cover the
material in 6.2.3 and 6.3.  
    
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displayed on the webpage above.

6.3 Endoderm   6.4 Limb Formation   6.4.1 The Limb Bud   - Reading: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Formation of the Limb Bud” Link: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Formation of the Limb Bud” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the subsections “Specification of the Limb Fields” and “Induction of the Early Limb Bud” along with all associated figures (Figs. 16.2-16.4). Make sure to read the associated footnotes at the end of the section.
 
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6.4.2 The Proximal-Distal Axis   - Reading: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Generating the Proximal-Distal Axis of the Limb” Link: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Generating the Proximal-Distal Axis of the Limb” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read all of this section, including Figs. 16.8-16.15, except for the grey text box on Hox genes and limb evolution.
 
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6.4.3 The Anterior-Posterior Axis   - Reading: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Specification of the Anterior-Posterior Limb Axis” Link: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Specification of the Anterior-Posterior Limb Axis” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section in its entirety along with all associated figures (Figs. 16.17-16.19).
 
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6.4.4 The Dorsal-Ventral Axis   - Reading: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “The Generation of the Dorsal-Ventral Axis” Link: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “The Generation of the Dorsal-Ventral Axis” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section in its entirety along with all associated figures (Fig. 16.20).
 
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6.4.5 Cell Death   - Reading: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Cell Death and the Formation of Digits and Joints” Link: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Cell Death and the Formation of Digits and Joints” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section in its entirety along with all associated figures (Fig. 16.22-16.24).
 
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6.4.6 Front Limb vs. Hind Limb Formation   - Reading: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Formation of the Limb Bud” Link: The National Institutes of Health: Professor Scott Gilbert’s Developmental Biology: “Formation of the Limb Bud” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the subsection “Specification of Forelimb or Hindlimb” along with all associated figures (Figs. 16.5-16.6).
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.