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BIO309: Zoology

Unit 3: Comparative and Anatomy and Physiology   This unit will introduce you to the basics of animal anatomy and physiology. The unit will focus primarily on those characteristics and systems that are shared among animal groups but will also provide you with an overview of some of the physiological differences among animal groups and the evolutionary pressures that led to those differences.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
Time Advisory: This unit will take you 23 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.3: 5.5 hours

☐    Introductory Reading: 0.25 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.3.2: 0.25 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3.3: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3.4: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit: 3.5: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.6: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.7: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.8: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.9: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.10: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.11: 1 hour

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • list and describe both general features of physiological systems and traits/adaptations specific to particular animal groups;
  • explain the physiological aspects of sensory apparatus (vision, olfaction, hearing, electromagnetic sensing, etc.), their ecological role(s), and their significance (e.g. their function in navigation, mating, and predation);
  • identify which kinds of receptors are found on which groups of organisms; 
  • identify which animal groups use which reproductive systems and describe the assumed advantages of each system; and
  • describe and identify physiological and associated behavioral changes that occurred during tetrapod evolution and, in particular, the evolution of terrestrial forms (including changes in skin, skeletal positioning, fertilization, and egg-laying).

3.1 Skeletal Systems   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Muscular and Skeletal Systems” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Muscular and Skeletal Systems (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read from the beginning of this page through the section on “Joints.” This reading covers the topics outlined in subunits 3.1.1 and 3.1.2.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: State University of New York: Dr. Michael Darby’s “Exoskeletons vs. Endoskeletons” Link: State University of New York: Dr. Michael Darby’s “Exoskeletons vs. Endoskeletons (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this table comparing the characteristics and constraints of exoskeletons and endoskeletons, along with the brief descriptive paragraph above it. This resource covers the topics listed in subunits 3.1.1 and 3.1.2.
     
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3.1.1 Exoskeleton   - Reading: North Carolina State University: Professor John R. Meyer’s “The Exoskeleton” Link: North Carolina State University: Professor John R. Meyer’s “The Exoskeleton (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the first page of this introduction to the exoskeleton in its entirety.
 
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3.1.2 Endoskeleton   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: The Journal of Anatomy: W.B. Primrose’s “The Evolution of Vertebrate Endoskeleton" Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s PubMed: The Journal of Anatomy: ** W.B. Primrose’s “The Evolution of Vertebrate Endoskeleton (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the entire paper from pages 1 to 19.
 
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3.2 Nervous Systems   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “The Nervous System” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “The Nervous System (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the first seven sections of this page (through “The Central Nervous System”). This reading also covers the topics in subunits 3.2.1 and 3.2.2.
 
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  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: A. Hay-Schmidt’s “The Evolution of the Serotonergic Nervous System” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: A. Hay-Schmidt’s “The Evolution of the Serotonergic Nervous System (PDF)
     
    Instructions: On the webpage linked above, click on the “PDF” link at the top right-hand corner of the page after “Format.” Read the entire article (9 pages). This reading also covers the topics in subunits 3.2.1 and 3.2.2. 
     
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  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: A. Hay-Schmidt’s “The Evolution of the Serotonergic Nervous System” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information: A. Hay-Schmidt’s “The Evolution of the Serotonergic Nervous System (PDF)
     
    Instructions: On the webpage linked above, click on the “PDF” link at the top right-hand corner of the page after “Format.” Read the entire article (9 pages). This reading also covers the topics in subunits 3.2.1 and 3.2.2. 
     
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3.2.1 Non-Chordates   Note: This topic is covered by the reading in subunit 3.2.

3.2.2 Chordates   Note: This topic is covered by the reading in subunit 3.2.

3.3 Sensory Systems   - Reading: Clinton Community College: Dr. Michael Gregory’s Biology Web: “Sensory Systems” Link: Clinton Community College: Dr. Michael Gregory’s Biology Web: “Sensory Systems (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety. Note that this reading covers the topics outlined in subunits 3.3.1-3.3.4.
 
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3.3.1 Vibrations   - Reading: Washington University’s Biology of Fishes Course: Malcolm Smale et al’s “Otolith Atlas of Southern African Marine Fishes”

Link: Washington University’s Biology of Fishes Course: Malcolm
Smale et al’s [“Otolith Atlas of Southern African Marine
Fishes](http://courses.washington.edu/fish311/Otoliths.pdf)[”](http://courses.washington.edu/fish311/Otoliths.pdf)
(PDF)  
    
 Instructions: Read the entire post.  

 Terms of use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed of the webpage above.

3.3.2 Electroreceptors   - Reading: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Electric Organs and Electroreceptors” Link: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Electric Organs and Electroreceptors (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety.
 
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3.3.3 Visual Systems   - Reading: University of Nebraska’s Medical Center: Dr. Michael D. Mann’s The Nervous System in Action: “Chapter 7: Vision” Link: University of Nebraska’s Medical Center: Dr. Michael D. Mann’s The Nervous System in Action: “Chapter 7: Vision (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Scroll down to Chapter 7, and select the “Vision” hyperlink or the option to download the chapter as a PDF. Read this chapter in its entirety for information on the biological structure, physiology, and function of the vision system (32 pages). Make sure to carefully view the figures and visuals provided.
 
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3.3.4 Sensing Chemicals   - Reading: University of Nebraska’s Medical Center: Dr. Michael D. Mann’s The Nervous System in Action: “Chapter 10: Gustatory and Olfactory Senses Link: University of Nebraska’s Medical Center: Dr. Michael D. Mann’s The Nervous System in Action: “Chapter 10: Gustatory and Olfactory Senses” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Scroll down to Chapter 10, and select the “Gustatory and Olfactory Senses” hyperlink or the option to download the chapter as a PDF. Read Chapter 10 in its entirety (11 pages) to learn about gustatory and olfactory senses. 
 
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3.3.4.1 Smell   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.3.4. 

3.3.4.2 Taste   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.3.4.

3.3.4.3 Pheromone Detection   - Reading: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Pheromones” Link: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Pheromones (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety. Note that while only insects and mammals are described, virtually all animals use and recognize pheromones and many organisms that live in areas with little or no light depend upon them.
 
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3.4 Respiratory Systems   3.4.1 Aquatic   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Respiratory Systems” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Respiratory Systems (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the sections on “Respiratory Surfaces” and “Methods of Respiration.” These will cover the topics in sections 3.4.1.1 and 3.4.1.2.  
 
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3.4.1.1 Diffusion   Note: This topic is covered by the reading beneath subunit 3.4.1.

3.4.1.2 Gills   Note: This topic is covered by the reading beneath subunit 3.4.1.

3.4.2 Terrestrial   3.4.2.1 Arthropods   - Reading: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Tracheal Breathing” Link: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Tracheal Breathing (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety.
 
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3.4.2.2 Vertebrates   - Reading: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Vertebrate Lungs” Link: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Vertebrate Lungs (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety and follow the link to “The Human Respiratory System”; here, read all sections except “Diseases of the Lungs.”
 
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3.5 Circulatory Systems   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Circulatory Systems” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Circulatory Systems (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read from the beginning of this page through the section on “Vertebrate Vascular Systems.”
 
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  • Lecture: Clinton Community College (SUNY): Michael Gregory’s “Circulatory System” Link: Clinton Community College (SUNY): Michael Gregory’s “Circulatory System (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Review the lecture notes for a concise overview of the circulatory system.
     
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3.5.1 Open   - Reading: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “An ‘Open’ Circulatory System: The Grasshopper” Link: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “An ‘Open’ Circulatory System: The Grasshopper (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this entire webpage for an example of an arthropod with an open circulatory system.
 
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3.5.2 Closed   3.5.2.1 Earthworms   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below section 3.5.2.2.

3.5.2.2 Vertebrates   - Reading: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Animal Circulatory Systems” Link: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Animal Circulatory Systems (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety. This reading covers the topics outlined in subunits 3.5.2.1 and 3.5.2.2.
 
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  • Web Media: The Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s “The Vertebrate Circulatorium” Link: The Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s “The Vertebrate Circulatorium (HTML, Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Scroll down to almost the end of the list of interactive exercises and click on “The Vertebrate Circulatorium.” Then click on the different animal examples and observe their circulation patterns in both a systematic view and a heart-detail view.
     
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3.6 Immune Systems   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “The Lymphatic and Immune Systems” and Science Daily’s “Invertebrate Immune Systems are Anything but Simple” Links: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “The Lymphatic and Immune Systems (HTML) and Science Daily’s “Invertebrate Immune Systems are Anything but Simple (HTML)
 
Instructions: In “The Lymphatic and Immune Systems,” read the subsections “Immunity,” “General Defenses,” and “Specific Defenses” (up to but not including “Lymphocytes”). Although the focus is on human immunity, the reading will provide you with an overall introduction to the topic. You should also read the entirety of the Science Daily article to get a sense of how non-vertebrate species deal with infections. The immune system is the body’s “defense mechanism.” The components of the immune system include cells and organs that protect the body from invasive bacteria and viruses. Adaptive and innate immunity are the two components of the immune system.
 
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3.6.1 Innate Immune System   - Reading: University of South Carolina’s School of Medicine: Gene Mayer’s “Innate (Non-Specific) Immunity” Link: University of South Carolina’s School of Medicine: Gene Mayer’s “Innate (Non-Specific) Immunity (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire chapter on innate immunity.
 
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3.6.2 Adaptive Immune System   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Alberts et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th edition: “Chapter 24: The Adaptive Immune System” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Alberts et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th edition: “Chapter 24: The Adaptive Immune System (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire chapter on the webpage linked above.
 
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3.7 Endocrine Systems   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Endocrine Systems” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Endocrine Systems (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety; it will provide you with an overview of endocrine systems and mechanisms. The endocrine system produces hormones that control and regulate body functions. The hormones are responsible for growth, development, digestion and reproduction in a living system. In this section, you will be reading about the invertebrate and vertebrate endocrine systems. Note that this reading also covers the topics outlined in subunits 3.7.1 and 3.7.2.
 
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3.7.1 Invertebrate   - Reading: The Society of Endocrinology’s Journal of Endocrinology: Volk Hartenstein’s “The Neuroendocrine System of Invertebrates: A Developmental and Evolutionary Perspective” Link: The Society of Endocrinology’s Journal of Endocrinology: Volk Hartenstein’s “The Neuroendocrine System of Invertebrates: A Developmental and Evolutionary Perspective (HTML or PDF)
 
Link: Read this entire article (16 pages). You may also choose to download the PDF of this article by clicking on “Full Text PDF” on the right side of the webpage.
 
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3.7.2 Vertebrate   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.7.

3.8 Digestive Systems   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Digestive Systems” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Digestive Systems (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read from the beginning of this page through the section “Stages in the Digestive Process.”
 
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3.8.1 Herbivore   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Comparison of Digestive Systems” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Comparison of Digestive Systems
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and read the entire text to learn about the digestive systems of herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.

3.8.2 Carnivore   Note: This topic is covered in the reading beneath subunit 3.8.1. Remember that the term carnivore to animals who diet primarily on meat.

3.8.3 Omnivore   - Web Media: YouTube: Bozemanbiology's “Digestive System” Link: YouTube: Bozemanbiology's “Digestive System (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch the video for an overview of the human
digestive system. Remember that the term omnivore refers to animals
that diet on both plants and meat.  

 Watching this video should take approximately 10 minutes.  
    
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displayed on the webpage above.

3.9 Excretory Systems   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “The Excretory System” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “The Excretory System (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read from the beginning of this page through the section “Vertebrates Have Paired Kidneys” as well as the section “Kidney Function.” This resource covers the topics outlined in subunits 3.9.1 and 3.9.2. The excretory system functions to remove toxic metabolic waste from the organism’s system to maintain homeostasis (equilibrium). Kidneys and skin eliminate urine and sweat as waste products. In this section, you will be reading about vertebrate and invertebrate excretory systems.
 
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  • Lecture: Clinton Community College (SUNY): Michael Gregory’s “Excretory System” Link: Clinton Community College (SUNY): Michael Gregory’s “Excretory System (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this entire webpage of lecture notes on the excretory system.
     
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3.9.1 Invertebrate   - Reading: Ex-anatomy.org: University of California, Riverside: Neil A. Campbell’s Excretory System, 2nd edition: “Invertebrates” Link: Ex-anatomy.org: University of California, Riverside: Neil A. Campbell’s Excretory System, 2nd edition: ** “Invertebrates (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the brief information on metanephridia of earthworms.
 
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3.9.2 Vertebrate   Note: This topic is covered by the reading beneath subunit 3.9.

3.10 Reproductive Systems   3.10.1 Asexual Reproduction   - Reading: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Asexual Reproduction in Animals” Link: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Asexual Reproduction in Animals (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read “Budding,” “Fragmentation,” and “Parthenogenesis,” and read the first sub-section of “Why Choose Asexual Reproduction?” (up to but not including “Purging Harmful Mutations”). This will cover the material in 3.10.1.
 
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3.10.1.1 Binary Fission in Protozoa   - Reading: Cornell University: The Department of Microbiology’s “Binary Fission and Other Forms of Reproduction in Bacteria” Link: Cornell University: Department of Microbiology’s “Binary Fission and Other Forms of Reproduction in Bacteria (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire 3-page paper linked on the Cornell University website. Make sure to click on the “page 2” and “page 3” links at the bottom of the webpage to continue reading.

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3.10.1.2 Parthenogenesis   - Reading: John Kimball’s Biology Pages “Parthenogenesis” Link: John Kimball’s Biology Pages “Parthenogenesis (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire page.
 
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3.10.2 Sexual Reproduction   - Reading: Marietta College: Dr. Dave McShaffrey’s “Reproduction in Vertebrates” Link: Marietta College: Dr. Dave McShaffrey’s “Reproduction in Vertebrates (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety. It will cover the topics outlined in sections 3.10.2-3.10.5.
 
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3.10.3 Simultaneous Hermaphroditism   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.10.2.

3.10.4 Sequential Hermaphroditism   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.10.2.

3.10.5 Gonochorism/Dioecious Reproduction (Two Separate Sexes)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.10.2.

3.10.6 Female Reproductive System   - Reading: Clinton Community College: Dr. Michael Gregory’s Biology Web: “Animal Reproduction” Link: Clinton Community College: Dr. Michael Gregory’s Biology Web: “Animal Reproduction (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read from the subsection “Reproductive Cycles” through the end of the page. Do not concern yourself with the diagrams of hormones and hormone cascades. This resource will also cover the topic outlined in subunit 3.10.7.
 
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3.10.7 Male Reproductive System   - Reading: The Cleveland Clinic Foundation: “The Male Reproductive System”

Link: The Cleveland Clinic Foundation: [“The Male Reproductive
System](http://my.clevelandclinic.org/anatomy/male_reproductive_system/hic_the_male_reproductive_system.aspx)[”](http://my.clevelandclinic.org/anatomy/male_reproductive_system/hic_the_male_reproductive_system.aspx)
(HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read the entire webpage for information on the human
male reproductive system.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above. 
  • Reading: Virginia Tech: Dr. Thomas Caceci’s Veterinary Histology: “Exercise 27: Male Reproductive System” Link: Virginia Tech: Dr. Thomas Caceci’s Veterinary Histology: “Exercise 27: Male Reproductive System (HTML)
               
    Instructions: Read the entire lab on the male reproductive system.
     
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3.11 Terrestrial vs. Aquatic Physiology   - Reading: Coastal Carolina University: Professor Sharon Gilman’s “Food Webs and Challenges of the Marine Environment” Link: Coastal Carolina University: Professor Sharon Gilman’s “Food Webs and Challenges of the Marine Environment (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the section entitled “The Marine Environment.” However, please note that the information in the “Density Problems” section on fish swim bladders is not accurate; fish do not inflate or deflate swim bladders as a means of rising or sinking in the water.
 
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3.11.1 Hydration   - Reading: Texas A&M;: Professor Jon Baskin’s “Tetrapod Origins” Link: Texas A&M: Professor Jon Baskin’s “Tetrapod Origins (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read from the beginning of this page up to but not including the section “Class Amphibia.” Note that this reading covers the topics outlined in subunit 3.11.1-3.11.3.
 
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3.11.2 Movement   Note: This topic is covered in the locomotion section of the reading in subunit 3.11.1.

3.11.3 Reproduction   Note: This topic is briefly covered in the reproduction section of the reading in subunit 3.11.1. Remember from your reading on amniotes that, due to the evolution of the hard-shelled amniotic egg, reptiles, birds, and mammals no longer need to lay their eggs in water; also note that fertilization in all amniotes is internal.

Unit 3 Assessment   - Assessment: Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 3 Quiz” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 3 Quiz (PDF)

 Instructions: Download the quiz linked above, and answer each
question before checking your answers against The Saylor
Foundation’s [“Unit 3 Quiz Answer
Key](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/BIO309-Unit-3-Answer-Key-FINAL.pdf)[”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/BIO309-Unit-3-Answer-Key-FINAL.pdf)
(PDF).