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BIO309: Zoology

Unit 2: Evolution and Taxonomy   In this unit, we will survey the history and evolution of animals on earth, with an eye toward understanding how certain adaptations led to the animal kingdom’s success. We will also learn how animals are classified and work towards a general understanding of biodiversity among animals by learning the major characteristics of representative animal phyla. Evolution refers to the process by which forms of life have changed through time by what is described as descent with modification. Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying living things. Taxonomy and evolutionare related, because the system of taxonomyis based on evolutionary and genetic differences.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
Time Advisory: This unit will take you 30 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 12 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.2: 10 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.2.1: 0.25 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.2.2: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.2.3: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.2.4: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.2.5: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.2.6: 0.25 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.2.7: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit: 2.5: 5.5 hours

☐    Introductory Reading: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 2.5.1: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 2.6: 6.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6.1: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 2.6.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 2.6.5: 1 hour

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • identify major eras and basic taxonomy, and explain the significance of the Cambrian Explosion in terms of animal diversity and species radiation;
  • identify acoelomates, pseudocoelomates, and coelomates when given examples from the phyla covered in the course;
  • compare and contrast the anatomy/evolution of the amnion, skulls, eyes, exoskeleton, and integument among different groups, with specific emphasis on the eye;
  • identify organisms within each phylum covered (including, occasionally, organisms within different classes or subclasses), and recognize some traits (anatomical and behavioral) specific to each group;
  • explain the ecological significance of various organisms within these phyla/groups;
  • use a cladorgam or phylogenetic tree to explain evolutionary relationships and recognize terms related to it (e.g. “monophyletic” and “paraphyletic”); and
  • explain and identify homologies and analogies.

2.1 A Brief History of Animals   2.1.1 Geologic Time Scale   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Animals I” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Animals I (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the sections “Organization of the Animal Body,” “Evolution and Classification of Animals,” and “Trends in Animal Evolution.” This reading will also cover the topics outlined in sections 2.1.1.1-2.1.1.4
 
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2.1.1.1 Earliest Fauna   Note: This topic is covered by the reading above in subunit 2.1.1.

2.1.1.2 Paleozoic   - Reading: Scienceviews.com: Jason Hamilton’s “The Paleozoic Era” Link: Scienceviews.com: Jason Hamilton’s “The Paleozoic Era (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this entire article for information on the beginning of the Paleozoic era, including the topics of planet life and the environment.

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2.1.1.3 Mesozoic   - Reading: Macroevolution.net: Eugene M. McCarthy’s “The Mesozoic Era” Link: Macroevolution.net: Eugene M. McCarthy’s “The Mesozoic Era (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this entire article.
 
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2.1.1.4 Cenozoic   - Reading: Fossil Museum: “Cenozoic Era Paleobiology” Link: Fossil Museum: “Cenozoic Era Paleobiology (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this entire webpage for an overview of the Cenozoic period.
 
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2.1.2 Evolution of Specific Characteristics   2.1.2.1 The Amnion   - Reading: The Tree of Life Web Project’s Michel Laurin and Jacques A. Gauthier’s “Amniota” Link: The Tree of Life Web Project’s Michel Laurin and Jacques A. Gauthier’s “Amniota (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety, and carefully view the images.
 
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2.1.2.2 The Skull   - Reading: Wikipedia’s “Skull” Link: Wikipedia’s “Skull (HTML)
 
Also available in: PDF

 Instructions: Read the introduction and the sections on “Tetrapod
Skulls” and “Skulls in Fish;” also look over the “Gallery” of skull
images.  
    
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  • Reading: University of California, Berkeley’s Museum of Paleontology: “Tetrapods” Link: University of California, Berkeley’s Museum of Paleontology: “Tetrapods (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the entire webpage for information on tetrapods. Pay particular attention to image and text on the tetrapod skull.
     
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2.1.2.3 Eyes   - Reading: The Karger Gazette: Dr. Russell Fernald’s “The Evolution of Eyes”; Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “The Compound Eye”; and The Living World of Molluscs: Dr. R. Nordsieck’s “The Evolution of the Mollusc Eye” Links: The Karger Gazette: Dr. Russell Fernald’s “The Evolution of Eyes;” (HTML) Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “The Compound Eye;” (HTML) and The Living World of Molluscs: Dr. R. Nordsieck’s “The Evolution of the Mollusc Eye (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read these pages in their entirety (Dr. Fernald’s article includes seven pages; read from “The Evolution of Eyes” to “Conclusions”) in order to understand the basics of eye evolution and the development of complex eyes in two major invertebrate groups.
 
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  • Web Media: Gresham College: Professor William Ayliffe’s “The Evolution of Vision” Link: Gresham College: Professor William Ayliffe’s “The Evolution of Vision” (Vimeo)
     
    Instructions: Watch this video, which is a lecture by Professor William Ayliffe. In the lecture, he discusses theories of the evolution of vision and describes recent research in this exciting area of evolutionary biology.
     
    Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.
     
    Terms of Use:This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to William Ayliffe, and the original version can be found here.

2.1.2.4 Exoskeleton   - Reading: North Carolina State University: Professor John R. Meyer’s “External Anatomy: The Exoskeleton” Link: North Carolina State University: Professor John R. Meyer’s “External Anatomy: The Exoskeleton” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire article linked above. Make sure to click on the “Go to Page Two” link at the bottom of the page to complete your reading.
 
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2.1.2.5 Skin   - Reading: Wiley Online Library: Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland’s Journal of Anatomy: Matthew K. Vickaryous and Jean-Yves Sire’s “The Integumentary Skeleton of Tretrapods: Origin, Evolution, and Development” Link: Wiley Online Library: Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland’s Journal of Anatomy: Matthew K. Vickaryous and Jean-Yves Sire’s “The Integumentary Skeleton of Tretrapods: Origin, Evolution, and Development (HTML)
 
Instructions: You may read the article directly on the webpage, or click on the “Get PDF” link to download the PDF file (24 pages). Read the entire article for information on the integumentary skeleton of vertebrates.
 
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2.1.2.6 Hair   - Reading: University of Michigan’s Animal Diversity Web: Phil Myers’s “Hair” Link: University of Michigan’s Animal Diversity Web: Phil Myers’s “Hair (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage to learn about the description, function, and evolution of hair.
 
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2.1.2.7 Feathers   - Reading: Eastern Kentucky University: Professor Gary Ritchison’s Ornithology: “Feather Evolution” Link: Eastern Kentucky University: Professor Gary Ritchison’s Ornithology: “Feather Evolution (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage for an overview of feather evolution.

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  • Reading: Oxford University Press: Integrative and Comparative Biology: Paul F.A. Maderson and Lorenzo Alibardi’s “The Development of the Sauropsid Integument: A Contribution to the Problem of the Origin and Evolution of Feathers” Link: Oxford University Press: Integrative and Comparative Biology: Paul F.A. Maderson and Lorenzo Alibardi’s “The Development of the Sauropsid Integument: A Contribution to the Problem of the Origin and Evolution of Feathers (HTML)
     
    Instructions: You may read the article on the webpage, or you may click on “Full Text PDF” to access the PDF file (17 pages). Read the entire article linked above for more detailed and complex information on the evolution of feathers. Take careful notes and re-read as necessary as you review this article.
     
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2.2 Taxonomy   - Reading: Bumblebee.org: “Taxonomy” Link: Bumblebee.org: “Taxonomy (HTML)

 Instructions: You may recall from Unit 6 of the Saylor Foundation’s
[BIO102](http://www.saylor.org/courses/bio102/) course, Taxonomy is
the science which deals with the study of identifying, grouping, and
naming organisms according to their established natural
relationship. Read the webpage linked above in its entirety for a
review on taxonomy.  
    
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2.2.1 Classification Systems   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Classification” and University of Michigan: Animal Diversity Web’s Tanya Dewey's “Organismal Classification” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr.  Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Classification (HTML) and University of Michigan: Animal Diversity Web’s Tanya Dewey's “Organismal Classification (HTML)
 
Instructions: In The Online Biology Book, read the whole chapter except for “The Kingdoms of Life.” Read all of the Animal Diversity Web’s “Organismal Classification.” These readings will cover the topics outlined in subunits 2.2.1.1 and 2.2.1.2.
 
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  • Reading: Colby College: Professor Tim Christensen’s BI131 Laboratory: “Functional Diversity Found in New England Mammal Skulls” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

2.2.2 Linnean System   - Reading: Palaeos.org: “Linnean Taxonomy” Link: Palaeos.org: “Linnean Taxonomy (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this brief encyclopedic article for information on the Linnean classification system.
 
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2.2.3 Modern Adjustments   Note: This topic is covered by the reading in subunit 2.2.1

2.3 Acoelomates   2.3.1 Porifera   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Animals I” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Animals I (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the sections “Sponges” and “Tissues: Jellyfish, Corals, and Sea Anemones.” This reading also covers the topics outlined in subunits 2.3.1 and 2.3.2. Acoelomates are characterized by the absence of a body cavity (coelom). Note that phylas Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora are classified as acoelomates.

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2.3.2 Cnidaria   - Reading: Tree of Life Project: Daphne G. Fautin and Sandra L. Romano’s “Cnidaria” Link: Tree of Life Project: Daphne G. Fautin and Sandra L. Romano’s “Cnidaria (HTML)
           
Instructions: Read the entire webpage, and carefully view the images.
 
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2.3.3 Ctenophora   - Reading: University of California Museum of Paleontology: Ben M. Waggoner’s “Introduction to the Ctenophora” Link: University of California Museum of Paleontology: Ben M. Waggoner’s “Introduction to the Ctenophora (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section in its entirety.
 
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2.4 Not-Quite Coelomates   2.4.1 Platyhelminthes   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Animals I” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Animals I (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the sections “Bilateral Symmetry and Cephalization: Phylum Platyhelminthes” and “The Tube-within-a-tube Body Plan: Phylum Nematoda.” This reading also covers the topic for subunit 2.4.2. Platyhelminthes and nematodes are sometimes classified by biologists as pseudocoelomates. Pseudocoelomates (not quite coelomates) possess a fluid filled cavity between the mesoderm and endoderm. The three layers of the body cavity (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm) are not clearly distinguished. The fluid filled cavity functions as a skeleton, somewhat supporting the body shape.
 
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2.4.2 Nematoda   - Reading: University of California, Berkeley’s Museum of Paleontology: “Introduction to the Nematoda” Link: University of California, Berkeley’s Museum of Paleontology: “Introduction to Nematoda (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the entire webpage for characteristics of
nematodes, or roundworms. Remember that nematodes are sometimes
classified by biologists as pseudocoelomates.  

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  • Reading: Earth Life: Gordon Ramel’s “The Phylum Nematoda” Link: Earth Life: Gordon Ramel’s “The Phylum Nematoda (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the entire webpage for supplemental information on the characteristics, anatomy, and ecology of nematodes, as well as a list of classifications.
     
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2.5 Coelomates: Protostomes   - Reading: University of New Mexico’s Biology Undergraduate Labs: “Protostomes” Link: University of New Mexico’s Biology Undergraduate Labs: “Protostomes (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire lab on protostomes, paying close attention to any diagrams and images. Protostomes are a group of animals in which the mouth develops first. Protostomes also possess a true body cavity–the coelom. molluscs, annelids, and arthropods fall under this category.
 
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2.5.1 Annelida   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Animals II” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Animals II (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the sections “Coelomates,” “Phylum Annelida,” “Phylum Mollusca,” “Phylum Arthropoda,” and “Deuterostomes and Protostomes.” This reading touches on the topics outlined in subunits 2.4.3-2.4.5.
 
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  • Interactive Lab: Rutgers University: “Phylum Annelida” Lab Rutgers University: “Phylum Annelida Lab
     
    Instructions: Read the text on the left side of the webpage, and click on the following links to view an image on the right side of the screen: Class Polychaeta, Class Oligocheta, and Class Hirudinea. Read until the beginning of the Mollusca chapter. 
     
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2.5.2 Mollusca   - Reading: University of California, Berkeley’s Museum of Paleontology’s version of Paul Bunje’s “The Mollusca” Link: University of California, Berkeley’s Museum of Paleontology’s version of Paul Bunje’s “The Mollusca (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the entire webpage, and carefully examine all
images.  
    
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  • Reading: Allegany County Public Schools: Jason Huber and Melissa Blank’s “Phylum Mollusca” Link: Allegany County Public Schools: Jason Huber and Melissa Blank’s “Phylum Mollusca (HTML)

    Instructions: Review the information on characteristics and classifications of mollusks.
     
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2.5.3 Arthropoda   - Reading: Peripatus: “Arthropoda” Link: Perpipatus: “Arthropoda (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage about the origins and evolution of Arthropoda.

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2.6 Coelomates: Deuterostomes   2.6.1 Echinodermata   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Animals III” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Animals III (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the sections “Phylum Echinodermata,” “Phylum Hemichordata,” “Phylum Chordata,” “Subphylum Urochordata,” “Subphylum Cephalochordata,” and “Subphylum Vertebrata” (through “Classification of the Vertebrates”). This reading coves the topics outlined in subunits 2.5.1-2.5.3. Deuterostomes are distinguished from protostomes by the fact that the first opening of the body cavity–the blastopore–becomes the anus. The mouth develops opposite to the blastopore, or the anus. The digestive tract then develops connecting the mouth and anus. The coelom of these organisms also develops internally. Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata belong to DeuterostomesYou will learn about each of these more in-depth in subunits 2.6.1-2.6.3.
 
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2.6.2 Hemichordata   - Reading: Earth Life: Gordon Ramsel’s “The Phylum Hemichordata” Link: Earth Life: Gordon Ramsel’s “The Phylum Hemichordata (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage for information on the two classes of the Phylum Hemichordata, or Acorn Worms.
 
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  • Reading: Encyclopedia of Life: Leo Shapiro’s “Hemichordata" Link: Encyclopedia of Life: Leo Shapiro’s “Hemichordata (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Examine the image at the top of the page, and read the entire encyclopedic article for an overview of Hemichordata.
     
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2.6.3 Chordata   - Reading: Bumblebee.org: “Chordata” Link: Bumblebee.org: “Chordata (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage. Note that this reading also covers the topics of Chordata subphylums outlined in sections 2.6.3.1 and 2.6.3.2.
 
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2.6.3.1 Urochordata   Note: This topic is covered by the reading beneath subunit 2.6.3.

2.6.3.2 Cephalochordata   Note: This topic is covered by the reading beneath subunit 2.6.3.

2.6.3.3 Craniata   - Reading: The Tree of Life Project: Philippe Janvier’s “Craniata” Link: The Tree of Life Project: Philippe Janvier’s “Craniata (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety for an introduction to the craniates group. Do not concern yourself with details of physiological characteristics or phylogenetic relationships. Order Craniata (the vertebrates) consists of all animals that have a skull encasing a brain. These animals have central nervous systems, brains, spinal cords, and endoskeletons. We will study this order, because you are likely to encounter its members (birds, snakes, squirrels, fish—and humans) in your day-to-day life.
 
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2.6.4 Chondrichthyes   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Animals III” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s The Online Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Animals III (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read from the section “Class Chondricthyes” to the end of the chapter. This reading also covers the topic outlined in subunit 2.6.5.
 
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2.6.5 Tetrapoda   - Reading: University of Maryland: J. Merck’s “Tetrapoda” Link: University of Maryland: J. Merck’s “Tetrapoda” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage. This covers the topics 2.6.5.1-2.6.5.4
 
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2.6.5.1 Amphibia   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 2.6.5.

2.6.5.2 Reptilia   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 2.6.5.

2.6.5.3 Aves   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 2.6.5.

2.6.5.4 Mammalia   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 2.6.5.

Unit 2 Assessment    

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Quiz” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Quiz (PDF)

    Instructions: Download the quiz linked above, and answer each question before checking your answers against The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Quiz Answer Key (PDF).