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BIO309: Zoology

Unit 1: Introduction to Zoology   What is zoology? How does it fit into the large field of biology? In this unit, we will work to answer these questions. The unit will also review the anatomy of animal cells and how they are unique.

Unit 1 Time Advisory
Time Advisory: This unit will take you 10 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 1.1: 8 hours
☐    Introductory Readings: 6 hours

☐    Subunit 1.1.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2: 2 hours

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • recognize a few major figures in the development of the field of zoology;
  • identify the fundamentals of animal-dispersal patterns;
  • list different time scales, identify fossil types, and explain the ways in which a study of these time scales and fossils illuminates our understanding of evolution; and
  • distinguish between plants and animals in terms of their cellular differences and similarities.

1.1 What Is Zoology?   - Reading: Biology Nation’s “Introduction to Zoology” Link: Biology-Nation’s “Introduction to Zoology” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read Introduction to Zoology (HTML) linked above. This reading will cover the topics outlined in sections 1.1.1 and 1.1.2. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • Reading: Government of Tamil Nadu: Chandran, Rani, and Sekar’s Zoology: “Unit 3: Human Anatomy;” “Unit 4: Genetics;” and “Unit 5: Developmental Biology” Links: Government of Tamil Nadu: Chandran, Rani, and Sekar’s Zoology: “Unit 3: Human Anatomy;” “Unit 4: Genetics;” and “Unit 5: Developmental Biology”
                         
    Instructions: Scroll down to item 22 under “Academic Stream Books,” and click on the English link to download the PDF file. Read Units 3-5 on pages 104-220 in their entirety. You may want to save the PDF file to your desk top for easy access as you will return to this text throughout the course. 

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1.1.1 A Subdivision of Biology   Note: This topic is covered by the readings beneath subunit 1.1.

1.1.2 Subdivisions of Zoology   Note: This topic is covered by the reading beneath subunit 1.1.

1.1.2.1 Morphology/Anatomy   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 1.1.2.

1.1.2.2 Taxonomy   Note: This topic is covered in more detail in subunit 2.2.

1.1.2.3 Physiology   Note: This topic is covered in more detail in Unit 3.

1.1.2.4 Embryology   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 1.1.2

1.1.2.5 Genetics   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 1.1.2

1.1.3 Zoology and Other Fields   1.1.3.1 Zoogeography   - Reading: University of British Columbia: Jill Jankowski’s “Introduction to Biogeography” Link: University of British Columbia: Jill Jankowski’s “Introduction to Biogeography (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read these lecture notes for a general overview of biogeography. Cross-disciplinary sciences have attracted a lot of attention and support in recent years through a convergence of academic perspectives that provide us with a fuller understanding of our interconnected and interdependent world. In this section, we will learn about two prominent cross-disciplinary fields that rely on a zoological analysis of the Earth’s history, beginning with zoogeography and then moving on to paleozoology. In zoogeography, we study patterns of the past, present, and future geographical distribution of animals in nature and the processes that regulate these distributions. In other words, its the scientific analysis of the spatial and termporal patterns of biodiversity.
 
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1.1.3.2 Paleozoology   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s Online Biology Book: “Paleobiology” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Dr. Michael Farabee’s Online Biology Book: “Paleobiology (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the sections “Paleobiology” and “The Geologic Time Scale.” Paleozoology is the study and analysis of animal remains, often recovered from archaeological and paleontological excavations.
 
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1.2 What Makes Animals Different?   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Geoffrey M. Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “The Origin and Evolution of Cells” National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Geoffrey M. Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “The Origin and Evolution of Cells (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the section “The Development of Multicellular Organisms.” This reading covers the topics outlined in subunits 1.2.1-1.2.3.
 
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  • Reading: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Animal Cells” Link: Dr. John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Animal Cells (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Look over this figure of an animal cell to understand its structure and organelles. You may choose to click on the links to each organelle to refresh your memory about their functions (but doing so is optional). When you look at an organism, how do you know whether it is an “animal” and not a fungus or protist or plant? Although this may seem simple, some organisms, like sponges and bryozoans, are not at all easy to classify as animals based on their looks alone. According to scientists, the only way to conclusively determine whether an organism is an animal is to confirm the absence of a cell wall. (Animal cells are enclosed by a flexible cell membrane rather than a cell wall).
     
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1.2.1 Unique Characteristics of the Animal Cell   Note: This topic is covered by the reading beneath subunit 1.2

1.2.2 Anatomy of the Animal Cell   Note: This topic is covered by the reading beneath subunit 1.2

1.2.3 Cell Differentiation   - Web Media: YouTube: EMSAdministrator’s “The Animal Cell” Link: YouTube: EMSAdministrator’s “The Animal Cell (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch the video for a brief overview on the structure and function of parts of an animal cell.

 Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above

Unit 1 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 1 Quiz” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 1 Quiz (PDF)

 Instructions: Download the quiz linked above, and answer each
question before checking your answers against The Saylor
Foundation’s [“Unit 1 Quiz Answer
Key](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/BIO309-Unit-1-Answer-Key-FINAL.pdf)[.”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/BIO309-Unit-1-Answer-Key-FINAL.pdf)
(PDF)