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BIO308: Marine Biology

Unit 5: Marine Ecology   The marine environment is not homogeneous.  Variations in oceanic habitats (i.e.  changes in temperature, depth, and light penetrance) provide opportunities for a variety of communities to develop.  We will begin this unit by learning the three major ocean zones—intertidal, benthic, and pelagic—and will continue on to study seven different types of communities that occur in or around the ocean.  We will look at the typical species, adaptations, food webs, population, and material cycles within each of these communities.      

Unit 5 Time Advisory
It should take you approximately 8 hours to complete this unit and all of its linked materials.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 0.75 hour

☐    Subunit 5.2: 7.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2.1: 0.5 hour

☐    Subunit 5.2.2: 0.5 hour

☐    Subunit 5.2.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 5.2.4: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2.5: 0.75 hour

☐    Subunit 5.2.6: 0.75 hour

☐    Subunit 5.2.7: 2 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
  - Identify various marine zones and communities by their physical factors, their ecological roles, and the organisms that typically inhabit them. - Answer questions about coral reefs, including their formation, their importance, and the physiology of stony corals.

5.1 Ocean Zonation   - Reading: University of California Museum of Paleontology’s “The Marine Biome:” “Oceans” Link: University of California Museum of Paleontology’s “The Marine Biome:” “Oceans” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the section on the zones of “Oceans.”  This reading will cover the topics outlined in subunits 5.1.1-5.1.3.
 
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5.1.1 Intertidal   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 5.1.

5.1.2 Pelagic   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 5.1.

5.1.3 Benthic   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 5.1.

5.2 Marine Communities   5.2.1 Estuarine   - Reading: MarineBio’s “Estuaries, Salt Marshes, and Mangroves” Link: MarineBio’s “Estuaries, Salt Marshes, and Mangroves” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the page in its entirety. These will cover subunits 5.2.1, 5.2.2, and 5.2.3.1.
 
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5.2.2 Mangrove Forest   - Assessment: McGraw-Hill: Drs. Peter Castro and Michael Huber’s Marine Biology: “Quiz for Chapter 12: Estuaries” Link: McGraw-Hill: Drs. Peter Castro and Michael Huber’s Marine Biology: “Quiz for Chapter 12:  Estuaries” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Answer all questions (1-19).  Some questions may ask for details not given in your readings; if so, use this as a further learning tool: make your best guess and learn from your results.  This quiz will test what you learned in subunits 5.2.1 and 5.2.2.
 
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5.2.3 Intertidal   5.2.3.1 Rocky Shore   Note: This material is covered under the reading for subunit 5.2.2.

5.2.3.2 Rocky Shore   - Reading: McGraw-Hill: Drs. Peter Castro and Michael Huber’s Marine Biology: “Quiz for Chapter 11: Between the Tides” Link: McGraw-Hill: Drs. Peter Castro and Michael Huber’s Marine Biology: “Quiz for Chapter 11:  Between the Tides” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This quiz will test you on what you learned in subunit 5.2.3.  Answer all questions (1-26).  Some questions may ask for details not given in your readings; if so, use this as a further learning tool: make your best guess and learn from your results.
 
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  • Reading: Orange County Marine Protected Area Council’s “Rocky Intertidal Ecosystems” Link: Orange County Marine Protected Area Council’s “Rocky Intertidal Ecosystems” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: From the link above, scroll down to the section on “Research & Monitoring” and click on the link “Rocky Intertidal Ecosystems,” which will connect you to a PDF file.  Read the section “Intertidal Zonation Patterns” (pages 5-7).
     
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5.2.4 Coral Reef   - Reading: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s “What Are Coral Reefs?” and “Biodiversity” Links: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s “What Are Coral Reefs?” (HTML) and “Biodiversity” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read all of “What Are Coral Reefs?” (you may find information on coral anatomy familiar to you from Unit 4) and “Biodiversity.”
 
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  • Assessment: McGraw-Hill: Drs. Peter Castro and Michael Huber’s Marine Biology: “Quiz for Chapter 14: Coral Reefs” Link: McGraw-Hill: Drs. Peter Castro and Michael Huber’s Marine Biology: “Quiz for Chapter 14:  Coral Reefs” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: This quiz will test you on what you learned in subunit 5.2.4.  Answer all questions (1-29). 
     
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5.2.5 Pelagic   - Reading: MarineBio’s “The Open Ocean” Link: MarineBio’s “The Open Ocean” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page in its entirety.
 
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  • Assessment: McGraw-Hill: Drs. Peter Castro and Michael Huber’s Marine Biology: “Quiz for Chapter 15: Life near the Surface” Link: McGraw-Hill: Drs. Peter Castro and Michael Huber’s Marine Biology: “Quiz for Chapter 15:  Life near the Surface” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: This is an optional assignment that you may choose to complete after you have worked through 5.2.5.  Answer all questions (1-37).  It is optional because it covers considerably more material than was covered by your reading; if you wish to test your knowledge and learn from your results you may take it.
     
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5.2.6 Deep Sea   - Web Media: The New York Times: “A Complex Food Chain” and National Geographic’s “Dumbo and Other Deep-Sea Oddities Found” Link: The New York Times: “A Complex Food Chain” (HTML) andNational Geographic’s “Dumbo and Other Deep-Sea Oddities Found” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: View this slideshow on marine deep-sea communities in the Gulf of Mexico, and watch this video on bizarre deep-sea life.
 
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  • Reading: MarineBio’s “The Deep Sea” Link: MarineBio’s “The Deep Sea” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this page in its entirety.
     
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5.2.7 Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents   - Assessment: McGraw-Hill: Drs. Peter Castro and Michael Huber’s Marine Biology: “Quiz for Chapter 16: The Ocean Depths” Link: McGraw-Hill: Drs. Peter Castro and Michael Huber’s Marine Biology: “Quiz for Chapter 16:  The Ocean Depths” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This quiz will test you on what you learned in subunits 5.2.6 and 5.2.7.  Answer all questions (1-29).  Some questions address topics from Unit 1; you may wish to refresh your knowledge of those topics before taking the quiz.
 
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  • Web Media: BBC Nature’s “Hydrothermal Vents;” Monterey Institute and NOAA’s “Chemosynthetic Food Web” Links: BBC Nature’s “Hydrothermal Vents” (Adobe Flash) Monterey Institute and NOAA’s “Chemosynthetic Food Web” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: For “Hydrothermal Vents,” read the introduction (one paragraph), and then scroll down to the figure depicting the location of hydrothermal vents along the ocean floor.  Scroll back up and click on the video “Deep Surprises” to learn more about the Pompeii worm, a remarkable vent-dwelling organism (about 4 minutes).  For the Chemosynthetic Food Web, read the instructions, and then run your cursor over each organism to read about its trophic role.  Place the species into the food web, and then choose “Show food web” to see which organisms eat or depend upon which in this bizarre community.
     
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  • Reading: NOAA: NeMO Explorer: “Hydrothermal Vents;” Monterey Institute and NOAA’s “Chemosynthesis vs. Photosynthesis” Link: NOAA: NeMO Explorer: “Hydrothermal Vents” (HTML); Monterey Institute and NOAA’s “Chemosynthesis vs. Photosynthesis” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Read both pages in their entirety to understand the makeup of vents and the ways in which the microorganisms at the base of vent communities are like and unlike primary producers that rely on light for energy.
     
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  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “This Is Why Researchers Get Travel Grants” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “This Is Why Researchers Get Travel Grants” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please complete the entire assessment.  You can check your answers against the answer key here.