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BIO306: Botany

Unit 4: Plant Ecology   In this final unit, we will learn how plants fit into the global ecology.  You will discover that every biome has characteristic vegetation uniquely adapted to the abiotic factors in its environment.  We will also learn how plants disperse globally, compete within a community, and facilitate the cycling of resources through an environment.  Upon completion of this unit, you should be able to explain how plants are important to ecology and how any one plant fits within its habitat, ecosystem, and biome.

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit will take approximately 9 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4.3: 3 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Define the major vegetative plant biomes on the planet. - Describe the major plant communities in terms of competition for resources (sun, water, nutrients and space), niche partitioning, and speciation. - Define resource cycling.

4.1 Global Ecology   4.1.1 Vegetative Biomes of the World   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Classification of Communities” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Classificationof Communities” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on how plant communities (or biomes), both terrestrial and aquatic, are classified. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.1.1 Terrestrial Biomes   - Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Biomes | Biology | Ecology” Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Biomes | Biology | Ecology” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this video (3:40 minutes) on terrestrial biomes (deserts, grasslands, and forests).  Please note that this topic is also covered by the resource below subunit 4.1.1.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.1.1.1 Tundra   Note: This topic is covered by the reading under Subunit 4.1.1.

4.1.1.1.2 Desert   Note: This topic is covered by the reading under Subunit 4.1.1.

4.1.1.1.3 Tropical Rain Forest   Note: This topic is covered by the reading under Subunit 4.1.1.

4.1.1.1.4 Temperate Forest   Note: This topic is covered by the reading under Subunit 4.1.1.

4.1.1.1.5 Shrubland (Chaparral)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading under Subunit 4.1.1.

4.1.1.1.6 Grassland   - Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Biomes Savanna | Biology | Ecology” Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Biomes Savanna | Biology | Ecology” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this video on grassland (or savanna).  Please note this topic is also covered by the reading below Subunit 4.1.1.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.1.1.7 Taiga (Boreal Forest)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading under Subunit 4.1.1.

4.1.1.2 Aquatic Biomes   - Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Aquatic Biomes Freshwater | Biology | Ecology,” “Aquatic Biomes Wetlands | Biology | Ecology,” and “Human Water Pollution | Biology | Ecology” Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Aquatic Biomes Freshwater | Biology | Ecology,” (YouTube)“Aquatic Biomes Wetlands | Biology | Ecology,”(YouTube) and “Human Water Pollution | Biology | Ecology” (YouTube)
 
Instructions:  Watch the 2-minute video on freshwater aquatic biomes.  Then, watch this video on estuaries, one of the most biologically productive areas on earth.  Watch this video on the effects of human pollution on aquatic biomes.  Please note this topic is also covered by the resource below Subunit 4.1.1.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.1.2.1 Freshwater (Inland)   Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunits 4.1.1 and 4.1.1.2.

4.1.1.2.2 Marine (Saltwater or Oceanic)   Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunits 4.1.1 and 4.1.1.2.

4.1.2 Plant Dispersal   4.1.2.1 Natural Methods of Long-Distance Dispersal   Note: This topic is covered by the resource below subunit 2.6.4.

4.1.2.2 Invasives   - Reading: WikiBooks: Dr. Eric Guinther, et al.’s Ecology: A Guide to the Study of Ecosystems: A Free Online Textbook: “Chapter 6. Ecology of Invasive Species” Link: WikiBooks: Dr. Eric Guinther, et al.’s Ecology: A Guide to the Study of Ecosystems: A Free Online Textbook:Chapter 6. Ecology of Invasive Species” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read this chapter, as well as the text for any embedded hyperlinks.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Encyclopedia of the Earth: “Invasive Plant Abundance” Link: Encyclopedia of the Earth: “Invasive Plant Abundance” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Please read this chapter for a recent assessment of invasive plants.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2 Plant Communities   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Community and Ecosystem Dynamics:” “Community Structure,” “Community Density and Stability,” “Change in Communities Over Time,” and “Ecosystems and Communities” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Community and Ecosystem Dynamics,”  “Community Structure,” “Community Density and Stability,”  “Change in Communities Over Time,” and “Ecosystems and Communities” (All HTML)
 
Instructions: Read these sections on plant community structure and dynamics.  Note that these readings contain the material you need to know for subunit 4.2.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.1 Competition   - Reading: Richard Steane’s BioTopics Website: “Competition” Link: Richard Steane’s BioTopics Website: “Competition” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on completion.  As you look at the pictures of plants, ask what they resource they might be competing for.  Move your mouse over the picture to get the answer. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Vincent H. Resh’s “Outline for “Lecture Biology 1B - Lecture 32: Organism Interactions and Competition”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Vincent H. Resh’s “Outline for “Lecture Biology 1B - Lecture 32: Organism Interactions and Competition”” (PDF)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Resh’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 5.”  Please print this out, if possible, or leave the document open to use in conjunction with Professor Resh’s video lecture below.  Note that this reading will cover the topics outlined in Subunit 4.2.1. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Vincent H. Resh’s “Lecture Biology 1B - Lecture 32: Organism Interactions and Competition” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Vincent H. Resh’s “Lecture Biology 1B - Lecture 32: Organism Interactions and Competition” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire lecture (about 50 minutes) in which Professor Resh talks about organism interactions and competition.  Note that this lecture will cover the topics in subunit 4.2.1
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on   the webpage above.

4.2.1.1 For Sun   Note: This topic is covered by the resource below subunit 2.6.4.

4.2.1.2 For Water   Note: This topic is covered by the resource below subunit 2.6.4.

4.2.1.3 For Nutrients   Note: This topic is covered by the resource below subunit 2.6.4.

4.2.1.4 For Space   Note: This topic is covered by the resource below subunit 2.6.4.

4.2.2 Speciation   - Reading: University of California’s Museum of Paleontology and the National Center for Science Education: Professor Roy Caldwell, et al.’s Evolution 101: “Speciation in Plants” Link: University of California’s Museum of Paleontology and the National Center for Science Education: Professor Roy Caldwell, et al.’s Evolution 101: “Speciation in Plants” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire webpage on speciation of plants.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.2.1 Niche Partitioning   Note: This topic is covered by the resource below subunit 4.2.2.

4.2.2.2 Geographical Isolation   - Reading: University of California’s Museum of Paleontology and the National Center for Science Education: Professor Roy Caldwell, et al.’s Evolution 101: “Allopatric Speciation: The Great Divide” Link: University of California’s Museum of Paleontology and the National Center for Science Education: Professor Roy Caldwell, et al.’s Evolution 101: “Allopatric Speciation: The Great Divide” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire chapter.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.3.3 Polyploidy   - Reading: Professor John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Polyploidy and Speciation” Link: Professor John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages:Polyploidy and Speciation” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire chapter.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.3 Resource Cycling   - Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “How Ecosystems Work | Biology | Ecology” Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “How Ecosystems Work | Biology | Ecology” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this video (3:24 minutes) on energy flow and nutrient cycles.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Nutrient Cycles” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Vincent H. Resh’s “Outline for “Lecture Biology 1B - Lecture 36: Ecosystems”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Vincent H. Resh’s “Outline for “Lecture Biology 1B - Lecture 36: Ecosystems”” (PDF)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Resh’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 9.”  Please print this out, if possible, or leave the outline open to use in conjunction with Professor Resh’s video lecture below. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above

  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Vincent H. Resh’s “Lecture Biology 1B - Lecture 36: Ecosystems” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Vincent H. Resh’s “Lecture Biology 1B - Lecture 36:  Ecosystems” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire lecture (about 50 minutes) in which Professor Resh talks about ecosystems and resource cycling.  Note that this lecture will cover the topics in subunit 4.3.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on   the webpage above.

4.3.1 Water Cycle   - Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Water Cycle | Biology | Ecology” Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Water Cycle | Biology | Ecology” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this 3-minute video on the water cycle.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Nutrient Cycles: The Water Cycle” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

4.3.2 Oxygen Cycle   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Nutrient Cycles: The Oxygen Cycle” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

4.3.3 Carbon Cycle   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Nutrient Cycles: The Carbon Cycle” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

4.3.4 Nitrogen Cycle   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Nutrient Cycles: The Nitrogen Cycle” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

4.3.5 Phosphorus and Sulfur Cycles   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Nutrient Cycles: The Phosphorus and Sulfur Cycles” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)