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BIO306: Botany

Unit 3: Evolution and Taxonomy   Plants have been on earth for almost 500 million years.  (In contrast, man, or members of the Homogenus, originated only 2.5 million years ago.)  During this long period, plants have evolved and adapted to a staggering range of environmental conditions to form many different specialized divisions.  In this unit, we will survey the history and evolution of plants on earth, with an eye toward understanding how certain adaptations shaped and enabled plant kingdom’s survival.  We will also learn how scientists classify plant life and take a broad look at biodiversity among plants by learning the major characteristics of plant divisions. 

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit will take approximately 14 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 6 hours

☐    Introduction: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.1.1: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 3.1.1.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.1.1.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.1.1.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.1.1.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.1.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.2:  8 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2.2:  6 hours

☐    Introduction:  0.5 hour

☐    Subunit 3.2.2.1:  2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2.2.2:  3 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Describe the major plant divisions, their special characteristics, and when they arose.
  • Describe plant taxonomy, or how we classify systems of plants.
  • Create your own historical time scale for plants and quickly classify the characteristics of each plant division.

3.1 A Brief History of Plants   - Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Biology 1B – Lecture 1: Introduction / Fungi”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Biology 1B – Lecture 1: Introduction / Fungi”” (PDF)
 
Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 1.”  Please print this out, if possible, or leave the outline open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s video lecture below.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for Units 3.1 to 3.2.3.
 
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  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 1: Introduction / Fungi” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 1: Introduction / Fungi” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please skip the first the introduction to Biology 1B by Professor Mike Moser.  Begin watching Professor Lewis Feldman’s lecture, at 13:10 minutes, in which the evolution and taxonomy of flora is discussed.  You should stop watching the lecture when Professor Feldman begins to talk about Fungi (at 29:26 minutes).  Note that this lecture will also cover the material you need to know for Subunits 3.1.1 through 3.2.1. 
     
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3.1.1 Geologic Time Scale   - Reading: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “History of Life” Link: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “History of Life” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this short introduction to the history of life on Earth. 
 
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  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “The Age of the Earth” and “The Geologic Time Scale”

    Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:The Age of the Earth” (HTML) and “The Geologic Time Scale” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read these two sections on the age of the earth and life on it.
     
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3.1.1.1 Earliest Flora   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Paleobiology: The Precambrian: Life’s Genesis and Spread” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Paleobiology: The Precambrian: Life’s Genesis and Spread” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this entire chapter.
 
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3.1.1.2 Paleozoic Era   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Paleobiology: The Early Paleozoic” and “Paleobiology: The Late Paleozoic” Links: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Paleobiology: The Early Paleozoic” (HTML) and “Paleobiology: The Late Paleozoic” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read both chapters on the Paleozoic era, focusing on plants.
 
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3.1.1.3 Mesozoic Era   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Paleobiology: The Mesozoic, Age of Cycads and Dinosaurs” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Paleobiology: The Mesozoic, Age of Cycads and Dinosaurs” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on the Mesozoic era, focusing on plants.
 
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3.1.1.4 Cenozoic Era   - Reading: The Virtual Fossil Museum: “Paleobiology: Cenozoic Era” Link: The Virtual Fossil Museum: “Paleobiology: Cenozoic Era” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on the Cenozoic era, focusing on plants.
 
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3.1.2 Evolution of Specific Characteristics   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants:” “Evolution of Plants” and “Plant Adaptations to Life on Land” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants:” (HTML) “Evolution of Plants” (HTML) and “Plant Adaptations to Life on Land” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read both of these chapters on the evolution of plants.  Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for units 3.1.2.1 through 3.1.2.3. 
 
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3.1.2.1 Leaves   Note: This topic is covered by the resource below subunit 3.1.2.

3.1.2.2 Flowers   Note: This topic is covered by the resource below subunit 3.1.2.

3.1.2.3 Seeds   Note: This topic is covered by the resource below subunit 3.1.2.

3.1.2.4 Alternation of Generations   Note: This topic is covered by the resource below subunit 3.1.2.

3.2 Taxonomy   3.2.1 Classification Systems   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity and Classification,” “Nomenclature,” “Construction of Phylogenetic Trees,” and “The Kingdoms of Life” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:  Biological Diversity and Classification,” (HTML) “Nomenclature,” (HTML) “Construction of Phylogenetic Trees,” (HTML) and “The Kingdoms of Life” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please complete these readings.  Note that for “Construction of Phylogenetics Trees,” you will have to scroll down.  This reading will complete subunits 3.2.1.1 to 3.2.1.2.  Note that Botany (and this course) uses “Division” instead of “Phylum.” 
 
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 *Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below
sub-subunit 1.2.1.  Please feel free to go back to sub-subunit
1.2.1, and study the resource for a review on roots.*

3.2.1.1 Linnean System   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.2.1.

3.2.1.2 Modern Adjustments   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.2.1.

3.2.2 Kingdom Plantae   - Web Media: The Tree of Life Web Project: Richard M. McCourt, R. L. Chapman, Mark Buchheim, and Brent D. Mishler’s “Green Plants” Link: The Tree of Life Web Project: Richard M. McCourt, R. L. Chapman, Mark Buchheim, and Brent D. Mishler’s “Green Plants” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter for a quick overview of the Kingdom Plantae.   The plant kingdom consists of four main groups:  bryophytes (or nonvascular plants), seedless vascular plants, and two groups of seeded vascular plants:  gymnosperms and angiosperms.
 
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3.2.2.1 Nonvascular Plants—The Bryophytes   - Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media’s “Nonvascular Plants | Biology” Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media’s “Nonvascular Plants | Biology” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch this short video (3:22 minutes) on Bryophytes, or nonvascular plants.
 
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  • Reading: Clermont College: Professor J. Stein Carter’s “General Biology III: Primitive Plants: Mosses, Ferns, and Allies” Link: Clermont College: Professor J. Stein Carter’s “General Biology III:  Primitive Plants: Mosses, Ferns, and Allies” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this chapter for an overview of the so-called “primitive plants.”  These consist of nonvascular bryophytes (hornworts, liverworts, and mosses) and vascular seedless plants (club mosses, ferns, and horsetails).  Vascular seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms), in contrast, are referred to as “non-primitive plants.”  Be careful not to be confused by the terms “the bryophytes” (referring to the nonvascular plants: hornworts, liverworts, and mosses) and the Division “Bryophyta” (which is the scientific name for the Division of Mosses).   Note that this lecture will cover the topics in sections
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  • Reading: Southern Illinois University, Department of Plant Biology: Dr. Raymond E. Stotler and Dr. Barbara J. Crandall-Stotler’s “What Are Bryophytes?” Link: Southern Illinois University, Department of Plant Biology: Dr. Raymond E. Stotler and Dr. Barbara J. Crandall-Stotler’s “What Are Bryophytes?” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: What are Bryophytes?  Bryophytes comprise three separate evolutionary lineages, which are today recognized as mosses (Division Bryophyta), liverworts (Division Marchantiophyta) and hornworts (Division Anthocerotophyta).  Read this chapter for an overview of the three phyla of nonvascular plants.
     
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  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Biology 1B – Lecture 2: Algae, Mosses, Lower Vascular Plants”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Biology 1B – Lecture 2: Algae, Mosses, Lower Vascular Plants”” (PDF)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 2.”  Please print this out, if possible, or leave the document open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s video lecture below.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for Subunit 3.2.2.1.
     
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  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 2: Algae, Mosses, Lower Vascular Plants” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 2: Algae, Mosses, Lower Vascular Plants” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this lecture (48 minutes), in which Professor Feldman talks about algae, mosses, and lower vascular plants.  Note that this lecture will cover the material you need to know for Subunit 3.2.2.1.
     
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3.2.2.1.1 Mosses—Division Bryophyta   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants - Bryophytes” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 2: Algae, Mosses, Lower Vascular Plants” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch this lecture (48 minutes), in which Professor Feldman talks about algae, mosses, and lower vascular plants.  Note that this lecture will cover the material you need to know for Subunit 3.2.2.1.
 
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  • Web Media: Southern Illinois University, Department of Plant Biology: Dr. Raymond E. Stotler and Dr. Barbara J. Crandall-Stotler’s “Taxa of Mosses” Link: Southern Illinois University, Department of Plant Biology:   Dr. Raymond E. Stotler and Dr. Barbara J. Crandall-Stotler’s “Taxa of Mosses” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Look at some of the photos of mosses (division Bryophyta) on this page to get a general idea of what they look like. 
     
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3.2.2.1.2 Liverworts—Division Marchantiophyta   - Web Media: Southern Illinois University, Department of Plant Biology: Dr. Raymond E. Stotler and Dr. Barbara J. Crandall-Stotler’s “Taxa of Liverworts” Link: Southern Illinois University, Department of Plant Biology:   Dr. Raymond E. Stotler and Dr. Barbara J. Crandall-Stotler’s “Taxa of Liverworts” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Look at some of the photos of liverworts (division Marchantiophyta) on this page to get a general idea of their appearance.
 
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  • Reading: Wikipedia: “Marchantiophyta” Link: Wikipedia: “Marchantiophyta” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Please read this entire article.
     
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3.2.2.1.3 Hornworts—Division Anthocerotophyta   - Reading: University of California: Museum of Paleontology’s “Introduction to the Anthocerotophyta” Link: University of California: Museum of Paleontology’s “Introduction to the Anthocerotophyta” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on liverworts.
 
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  • Web Media: Southern Illinois University, Department of Plant Biology: Dr. Raymond E. Stotler and Dr. Barbara J. Crandall-Stotler’s “Taxa of Hornworts” Link: Southern Illinois University, Department of Plant Biology:   Dr. Raymond E. Stotler and Dr. Barbara J. Crandall-Stotler’s “Taxa of Hornworts” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Look at some of the photos of hornworts (division Anthocerotophyta) on this page to get a general idea of their appearance.
     
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3.2.2.2 Vascular Plants   3.2.2.2.1 Vascular Seedless Plants   - Reading: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Seedless Vascular Plants” Link: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Seedless Vascular Plants” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on vascular seedless plants.   Click on the link for the title “Seedless Vascular Plants” in the table of contents at the top of the webpage to access this section.
 
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  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the “Vascular Seedless Plants” portion of this chapter, along with all the embedded hyperlinks.  Learn the four representative Divisions (Psilotophyta, Lycophyta, Sphenophyta, and Pterophyta)of the vascular seedless plant group listed below. 
     
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  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Biology 1B – Lecture 3: Ferns and Gymnosperms”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Biology 1B – Lecture 3: Ferns and Gymnosperms”” (PDF)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 3.”  Please print this out, if possible, or leave the document open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s lecture below.  Note that this reading will also cover the material you need to know for section 3.2.2.2.1.
     
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  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 3: Ferns and Gymnosperms” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 3: Ferns and Gymnosperms” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire lecture (about 51 minutes), in which Professor Feldman talks about ferns and gymnosperms.  Note that this lecture will cover the topics outlined in Subunit 3.2.2.2.1
     
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3.2.2.2.1.1 Whisk Ferns—Division Psilotophyta   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants: The Psilophytes” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants:  The Psilophytes” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section on the Psilophytes, or Whisk Ferns.
 
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3.2.2.2.1.2 Club Mosses—Division Lycophyta   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants: The Lycophytes” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants:  The Lycophytes” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section on the Lycophytes, or Club Mosses.
 
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3.2.2.2.1.3 Horsetails—Division Sphenophyta   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants: The Sphenophyta” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants: The Sphenophyta” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section on the Sphenophyta, or Horsetails.
 
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3.2.2.2.1.4 True Ferns—Division Pterophyta   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants: The Ferns” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants:  The Ferns” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section on the Ferns.
 
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  • Assessment: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants: Review Questions” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants:  Review Questions” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Scroll down the webpage to the “Review Questions” section.  Try to answer each question before looking at the correct answer that appears at the end of the question.  Assess your understanding of the “primitive plants” with these learning objectives.
     
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  • Assessment: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Seedless Plants Review Questions” Link: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Seedless Plants Review Questions” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Test your knowledge of seedless plants by answering the review questions.  Click on the provided hyperlinks to check your answers. 
     
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3.2.2.2.2 Vascular Seed Plants   - Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media’s “Seed Plants | Biology | Botany” Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media’s “Seed Plants | Biology | Botany” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch this short, 4-minute video on the vascular seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms).
 
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  • Reading: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Seed Plants” Link: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Seed Plants” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this chapter on vascular seed plants.  Note that this material covers what you need to know for all of section 3.2.2.2.2, Vascular Seed Plants.
     
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  • Assessment: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Seed Plants Review Questions” Link: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Seed Plants Review Questions” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Test your knowledge of seed plants by answering the review questions.  Click on the provided hyperlinks to check your answers. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Biology 1B – Lecture 3: Ferns and Gymnosperms”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Biology 1B – Lecture 3: Ferns and Gymnosperms”” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 3.”  Please print this out, if possible, or leave the document open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s lecture below.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for section 3.2.2.2.2.
     
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  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 3: Ferns and Gymnosperms” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 3: Ferns and Gymnosperms” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please begin watching this video at 32:00 minutes, in which Professor Feldman begins talking about gymnosperms.  Note that this lecture will cover the material you need to know for section 3.2.2.2.2.1.
     
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3.2.2.2.2.1 Gymnosperms   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Seed Plants: Gymnosperms are Seed Plants” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Biological Diversity:  Seed Plants:  Gymnosperms are Seed Plants” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on Gymnosperms.
 
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3.2.2.2.2.1.1 Cycads—Division Cycadophyta   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Seed Plants: Cycads” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Biological Diversity: Seed Plants: Cycads” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on Cycads.
 
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3.2.2.2.2.1.2 Ginkgo—Division Ginkgophyta   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Seed Plants: Ginkgos” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Biological Diversity: Seed Plants: Ginkgos” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on Ginkgos.
 
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3.2.2.2.2.1.3 Gnetales—Division Gnetophyta   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Seed Plants: Gnetales” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Biological Diversity:  Seed Plants: Gnetales” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on Gnetales.
 
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3.2.2.2.2.1.4 Conifers—Division Coniferophyta   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Seed Plants: Conifers” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Biological Diversity: Seed Plants: Conifers” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this chapter on Conifers.
 
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3.2.2.2.2.2 Anthophyta (Angiosperms or Flowering Plants)   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Plants and Their Structure II: Monocots and Dicots” and “Biological Diversity: Seed Plants: Angiosperms are Flowering Plants” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Plants and Their Structure II:  Monocots and Dicots” (HTML) and “Biological Diversity:  Seed Plants:  Angiosperms are Flowering Plants” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read “Plants and Their Structure II: Monocots and Dicots” for a short explanation of the two types of angiosperms: monocots and dicots.  Then, please read this chapter on Angiosperms.
 
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  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Biology 1B – Lecture 4: Angiosperms”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Biology 1B – Lecture 4: Angiosperms”” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 4.”  Please print this out, if possible, or leave the document open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s lecture below.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for section 3.2.2.2.2.2.2.
     
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  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 4: Angiosperms” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 4: Angiosperms” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this lecture (48:39 minutes), in which Professor Feldman begins covering angiosperms, or flowering plants.  Note that this lecture will cover the material you need to know for section 3.2.2.2.2.2.2.
     
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  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Biology 1B - Lecture 5: Angiosperms”” Link: UC Berkeley:  Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Biology 1B - Lecture 5: Angiosperms”” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 5.”  Please print this out, if possible, or leave the outline open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s lecture below.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for section 3.2.2.2.2.2.2.
     
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3.2.2.2.2.2.1 Dicots-- Class Magnoliopsida   - Reading: WikiBooks: Dr. Eric Guinther, et al.’s Study Guide to the Science of Botany: A Free Online Textbook: “Chapter 16. Magnoliophyta (II)” Link: WikiBooks: Dr. Eric Guinther, et al.’s Study Guide to the Science of Botany: A Free Online Textbook:Chapter 16.  Magnoliophyta (II)” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read this chapter, and click on any embedded hyperlinks to enhance your reading experience.
 
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