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BIO306: Botany

Unit 2: Plant Physiology   In this unit, you will learn the basics of plant life: photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration (water utilization), nutrition, growth and development, and reproduction.

Recall from B101 that all cells utilize ATP as the universal energy source or “currency.”  Metabolic reactions are driven using the energy produced by breaking the terminal phosphate bond of ATP.  The cellular organelles that produce ATP are the chloroplast (in plant cells) and the mitochondrion (in plant and animal cells).

The production of ATP in the chloroplast occurs by the process of photosynthesis and is covered in subunit 2.1.  The production of ATP in the mitochondrion occurs by the process of respiration and is covered in subunit 2.2.  In subunit 2.3, you will learn about transpiration, or how a plant utilizes water.  In subunit 2.4, you will learn about a plant’s nutritional needs and how it meets them.  In the remaining sections of this unit, you will learn about the life cycle of plants, which consists of growth, development, and reproduction.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 45.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 10.5 hours

☐    Introduction: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.1: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.3: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.1.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 2.2: 4 hours

☐    Readings: 2 hours

☐    Assignments/Assessments: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5: 11 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5.1: 5.5 hours

☐    Readings: 3.5 hours

☐    Lectures: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5.2: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 2.5.4: 0.5 hour

☐    Subunit 2.5.5: 0.5 hour

☐    Subunit 2.6: 14 hours

☐    Introduction: 0.25 hour

☐    Subunit 2.6.1: 3.75 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6.2: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6.3: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6.4: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit  2.6.5: 1 hour

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Identify the anatomical structures of the plant leaf and chloroplast. - Identify the chemical structure, properties and synthesis of chlorophyll. - Identify the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis, and compare and contrast these reactions. - Describe in detail the three reactions of cellular respiration; glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain. - Describe transpiration and how it responds to changes in the environment. - Define how a plant meets its nutritional needs. - Describe how a plant grows and develops. - Describe how a plant reproduces.

2.1 Photosynthesis   - Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Jennifer A. Doudna’s “Biology 1A - Lecture 9: Introduction to Bioenergetics” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Jennifer A. Doudna’s “Biology 1A - Lecture 9: Introduction to Bioenergetics” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are the processes by which plants produce energy.  As an introduction to this topic, “bioenergetics,” please watch this entire lecture (about 50 minutes) by UC Berkeley’s Professor Doudna.  This lecture will prepare you for the material of subunits 2.1 (Photosynthesis) and 2.2 (Respiration). 
 
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  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Photosynthesis” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Photosynthesis” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this chapter, including all hyperlinks. This reading and associated hyperlinks will prepare you for the material of subunits 2.1 (Photosynthesis) and 2.2 (Respiration).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: W.H. Freeman: Lodish, et al.’s Molecular Cell Biology (4th ed.): “Cellular Energetics: Glycolysis, Aerobic Oxidation, and Photosynthesis” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: W.H. Freeman: Lodish, et al.’s Molecular Cell Biology (4th ed.):  “Cellular Energetics: Glycolysis, Aerobic Oxidation, and Photosynthesis” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this entire chapter, which covers cellular energetics.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 2.1 (Photosynthesis) and 2.2 (Respiration).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “How trees and plants grow | Cell Biology | Botany” Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “How trees and plants grow | Cell Biology | Botany” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions:   Watch this 3-minute video introduction, which answers the simple question: “How do plants grow?”
     
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2.1.1 The Chloroplast   2.1.1.1 Anatomy of a Leaf   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “The Mesophyll Is the Main Assimilation Tissue of Leaves” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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2.1.1.1.1 Cuticle   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “The Cuticle, Cutin, Suberin, & Waxes-1” (HTML), “The Cuticle, Cutin, Suberin, & Waxes-2” (HTML), and “The Cuticle, Cutin, Suberin, & Waxes-3” (HTML) The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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2.1.1.1.2 Epidermis   Note: This topic is covered by the resources in subunit 2.1.1.1, above.

2.1.1.1.3 Mesophyll   Note: This topic is covered by the resources in subunit 2.1.1.1, above.

2.1.1.2 Anatomy of a Chloroplast   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Garland Science: Alberts, et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.): “Chapter 14: Chloroplasts and Photosynthesis” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Garland Science: Alberts, et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.): “Chapter 14:  Chloroplasts and Photosynthesis” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this entire chapter, which covers in detail the subject of chloroplasts and photosynthesis.  Note that this lecture will cover the topics outlined in subunits 2.1.1.2 through 2.1.4.3. 
 
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2.1.1.2.1 Membranes   Note: This topic is covered by the resources in subunit 2.1.1.2, above.

2.1.1.2.2 Thylakoids   Note: This topic is covered by the resources in subunit 2.1.1.2, above.

2.1.1.2.3 Grana   Note: This topic is covered by the resources in subunit 2.1.1.2, above.

2.1.1.2.4 Stroma   Note: This topic is covered by the resources in subunit 2.1.1.2, above.

2.1.1.3 Chlorophyll   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Light and Chlorophyll” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website:  “Light and Chlorophyll” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read this chapter on the Light Reactions. 
 
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2.1.1.3.1 Chemical Structure   Note: This topic is covered by the reading under Subunit 2.1.1.3.

2.1.1.3.2 Properties   Note: This topic is covered by the reading under Subunit 2.1.1.3.

2.1.1.3.3 Synthesis   Note: This topic is covered by the resources in subunit 2.1.1.3, above.

2.1.2 Light Reactions   - Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Light Reactions | Cell Biology | Photosynthesis” Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Light Reactions | Cell Biology | Photosynthesis” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this brief, 4-minute video introduction to photosynthesis.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Light Reactions” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Light Reactions” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Read this chapter on the Light Reactions. 
     
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  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Jennifer A. Doudna’s “Biology 1A - Lecture 12: Photosynthesis: The Light Reactions” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Jennifer A. Doudna’s “Biology 1A - Lecture 12: Photosynthesis: The Light Reactions” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire video lecture (about 49 minutes) by Professor Doudna.  This lecture covers the light reactions of photosynthesis:  Photosystem I, Photosystem II, and the Z - Scheme.  Note that this resource will cover the material you need to know for subunits 2.1.2.1 through 2.1.2.3. 
     
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2.1.2.1 Photosystem I   Note: This topic is covered by the video lecture in subunit 2.1.2, above.

2.1.2.2 Photosystem II   Note: This topic is covered by the video lecture in subunit 2.1.2, above.

2.1.2.3 Z – Scheme   Note: This topic is covered by the video lecture in subunit 2.1.2, above.

2.1.3 Dark Reactions   - Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Jennifer A. Doudna’s “Biology 1A - Lecture 13: Photosynthesis: The Dark Reactions Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Jennifer A. Doudna’s “Biology 1A - Lecture 13: Photosynthesis: The Dark Reactions” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch this entire lecture (50:34 minutes) by Professor Doudna.  This video lecture addresses the dark reactions of photosynthesis: the typical Calvin cycle, C3 carbon fixation and photorespiration, C4 carbon fixation, and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM).  Note that this lecture will cover the material you need to know for subunits 2.1.3.1 through 2.1.3.4. 
 
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2.1.3.1 Typical Calvin Cycle   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Calvin Cycle” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website:  “Calvin Cycle” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read this chapter on the typical Calvin cycle. 
 
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2.1.3.1.1 Carbon Fixation   Note: This topic is covered by the reading in Subunit 2.1.3.1.  Carbon Fixation occurs during the first part of the Calvin cycle when carbon, in the form of CO2, is attached (“fixed”) to the three-carbon molecule, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, by the carboxylase activity of the enzyme RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase).

2.1.3.1.2 Glucose Formation   Note: This topic is covered by the reading in Subunit 2.1.3.1.  Glucose formation occurs during the later part of the Calvin cycle, when two molecules of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate combine to form the six-carbon molecule, glucose.

2.1.3.2 C3 Carbon Fixation and Photorespiration   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Photorespiration” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Photorespiration” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on the photorespiration and C3 carbon fixation.  As its name implies, the enzyme RuBisCO can also fix O2.  This process is called Photorespiration.  Many plants, especially important agricultural ones like soybeans and wheat, significantly reduce the efficiency of Calvin cycle-carbon fixation by photorespiration when CO2/O2 ratios are high.  This occurs during periods of water stress and heat, when the stomata close, reducing amount of available CO2.  No one knows why this seemingly (to us) wasteful biochemical process has persisted.  
 
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2.1.3.3 C4 Carbon Fixation   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “C4 and CAM Cycles” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website:  “C4 and CAM Cycles” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read this chapter on the C4 and CAM cycles.  These are two evolutionary adaptations by plants to avoid photorespiration.  C4 plants, usually of tropical origin, fix carbon by joining CO2 to a three-carbon compound.   The resulting four-carbon compound is then quickly shuttled into specialized bundle sheath cells where they are used to form glucose via the Calvin cycle.  Plants that fix carbon via the CAM pathway live in arid climates, such as deserts.  To conserve water, they open their stomata only during the cooler night hours.  However, this prevents the normal gas exchange during the day when photosynthesis is occurring.  To get around this problem, CAM plants combine CO2 at night with a three-carbon compound to form a four-carbon compound, which is then stored in leaf vacuoles.  During the day, while photosynthesis is occurring and the stomata are closed, CO2 may be made available by removing it from the four-carbon compound as needed.
 
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2.1.3.4 Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading in subunit 2.1.3.3.

2.1.4 Photosynthesis in Summary   - Reading: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Photosynthesis” Link: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Photosynthesis” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the material on this page to review the entire topic of photosynthesis.  This reading will cover the topics outlined in Subunits 2.1.4.1 through 2.1.4.3. 
 
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  • Activity: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Photosynthesis – Interactive Exercise” Link: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web:  “Photosynthesis – Interactive Exercise” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: To access this online interactive exercise on photosynthesis, first click on the link above to go to Professor Gregory’s General Biology 1 menu.  In the first column entitled “Reading and Lecture Notes,” scroll down to “12 --Photosynthesis” and select “Interactive Exercise.”  A new browser window will appear.  Follow the instructions displayed.  Note that this activity will cover the material you need to know for subunits 2.1.4.1 through 2.1.4.3. 
     
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  • Assessment: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Photosynthesis Review Questions” Link: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Photosynthesis Review Questions” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Test your knowledge of photosynthesis by answering the questions for this online assessment.  After you answer each question, click on the provided hyperlinks for the answers.  These review questions cover material you have read in this Subunit 2.1.4 and address the topics outlined in Subunits 2.1.4.1-2.1.4.3.
     
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2.1.4.1 Breaking of Water Molecule   Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.1.4.

2.1.4.2 Release of Oxygen   Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.1.4.

2.1.4.3 Formation of Glucose   Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.1.4.

2.2 Respiration   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Respiration” and “Pentose Phosphate Pathway and Lipid Metabolism” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Respiration” (HTML) and “Pentose Phosphate Pathway and Lipid Metabolism” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read these two chapters on cellular respiration, the process into which the products of photosynthesis flow.  You have already covered the topic of cellular respiration in BIO101, so this should all be review.
 
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  • Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Glycolysis Cellular Respiration Overview | Cell Biology” Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Glycolysis Cellular Respiration Overview | Cell Biology” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions:   Watch this 4-minute video introduction to glycolysis and cellular respiration.  Though the video shows animals (including humans), remember these processes are occurring in plants, utilizing the glucose synthesized from sunlight via photosynthesis.  Note that this video covers material you need to know for subunits 2.2.1 through 2.2.3. 
     
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  • Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Cellular Respiration Occurs in Mitochondria | Cell Biology” Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media's “Cellular Respiration Occurs in Mitochondria | Cell Biology” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions:  Watch this brief, 3:30-minute video on cellular respiration.  Note that this video covers material you need to know for subunits 2.2.1 through 2.2.3.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Activity: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Cellular Respiration – Interactive Exercise” Link: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web:  “Cellular Respiration – Interactive Exercise” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  To access this online interactive exercise on cellular respiration, first click on the link above to go to Professor Gregory’s General Biology 1 menu.  In the first column entitled “Reading and Lecture Notes,” scroll down to “11 – Cellular Respiration” and select “Interactive Exercise.”  A new browser window will appear.  Follow the instructions displayed.  Note that this activity will cover the material you need to know for subunits 2.2.1 through 2.2.3. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Cellular Respiration Review Questions” Link: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web:  “Cellular Respiration Review Questions” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Test your knowledge of photosynthesis by answering the questions for this online assessment.  After you answer each question, click on the provided hyperlinks for the answers.  Note that this assessment will cover the material you need to know for subunits 2.2.1 through 2.2.3. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Cellular Respiration – Active Learning Exercise (questions)” Link: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web:  “Cellular Respiration – Active Learning Exercise (questions)” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  To access this assessment on cellular respiration, first click on the link above to go to Professor Gregory’s General Biology 1 menu.  In the first column entitled “Reading and Lecture Notes,” scroll down to “11 – Cellular Respiration” and select “Active Learning Exercise (questions)” and download the Word file.  Note that this assessment will cover the material you need to know for subunits 2.2.1 through 2.2.3. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web: “Cellular Respiration – Active Learning Exercise (answers)” Link: Clinton Community College: Professor Michael J. Gregory’s The Biology Web:  “Cellular Respiration – Active Learning Exercise (answers)” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  To access this assessment answer key on cellular respiration, first click on the link above to go to Professor Gregory’s General Biology 1 menu.  In the first column entitled “Reading and Lecture Notes,” scroll down to “11 – Cellular Respiration” and select “Active Learning Exercise (answers).”  Review any questions you may have missed.  Note that this assessment will cover the material you need to know for subunits 2.2.1 through 2.2.3. 
     
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2.2.1 Glycolysis   Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.2.

2.2.2 Krebs Cycle   Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.2.

2.3 Transpiration   2.3.1 Movement of Water through Plants   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Water and Water Movement,” “Osmosis,” “Root Intake,” “Transpiration,” “Solutes,” and “Translocation” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website:  “Water and Water Movement,” (HTML) “Osmosis,” (HTML) “Root Intake,” (HTML) “Transpiration,” (HTML) “Solutes,” (HTML) and “Translocation” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read these chapters on the movement of water into and within the plant.  Transpiration refers to the movement of water (solvent), whereas translocation refers to the movement of dissolved nutrients (solutes). 
 
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  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Water and Mineral Uptake,” “Xylem and Transport, “Guard Cells Regulate Transpiration,” and “Transportation and Storage of Nutrients” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Water and Mineral Uptake,” (HTML) “Xylem and Transport,” (HTML) “Guard Cells Regulate Transpiration,” (HTML) and “Transportation and Storage of Nutrients” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read these short chapters describing the regulation of uptake of water and minerals into the plant tissue. 
     
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  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture Biology 1B – Lecture 13: Water Relations”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture “Biology 1B – Lecture 13: Water Relations”” (PDF)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 13.”  Please print this out, if possible, or keep the outline open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s video lectures 13 (below) and 14 (Subunit 2.4.1).
     
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  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 13: Water Relations” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 13: Water Relations” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire lecture (about 50 minutes) in which Professor Feldman covers plants and their relationship to water. 
     
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  • Web Media: YouTube: Biodita’s “Onion Cells Plasmolysis” Link: YouTube: Biodita’s “Onion Cells Plasmolysis” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this short, half-minute video.  Notice how the cell membrane detaches form the cell wall as the hypertonic solution (15% salty water) enters the cell.
     
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2.3.2 Adaptations to Reduce Water Loss   - Reading: The Missouri Botanical Garden’s “Desert Plant Adaptations” Link: The Missouri Botanical Garden’s “Desert Plant Adaptations” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read this
material dealing with desert plant adaptations.  
    
 Studying this reading should take approximately 15 minutes to
complete.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Encyclopedia of the Earth: “Adaptations of Desert Plants” Link: Encyclopedia of the Earth:  “Adaptations of Desert Plants” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Please read this chapter for a recent assessment of invasive plants.
     
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2.4 Nutrition   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Nutrition” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Nutrition” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter, including all hyperlinks.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunit 2.4.
 
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2.4.1 Mineral Requirements   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Mineral Requirements” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Mineral Requirements” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read this chapter on mineral requirements.  As you have learned, plants obtain (or “fix”) carbon by photosynthesis.  Minerals are not present in the atmosphere, and, thus, must be obtained from the soil via the roots. 
 
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  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 14: Water Relations, Mineral Nutrition” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 14: Water Relations, Mineral Nutrition” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire lecture (46:36 minutes) in which Professor Feldman covers plants and their relationship with water and mineral nutrients.  In this lecture, he focuses on mineral requirements. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.4.1.1 Potassium   Note: This topic is covered by the reading and video lecture in subunit 2.4.1.

2.4.1.2 Phosphorus   Note: This topic is covered by the reading and video lecture in subunit 2.4.1.

2.4.1.3 Nitrogen   Note: This topic is covered by the reading and video lecture in subunit 2.4.1.

2.4.1.4 Trace Minerals   Note: This topic is covered by the reading and video lecture in subunit 2.4.1.

2.4.1.5 Mineral Deficiencies   Note: This topic is covered by the reading and video lecture in subunit 2.4.1.

2.4.2 Nitrogen Metabolism   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Nitrogen Fixation” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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2.4.2.1 Nitrogen Fixation   Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.2.

2.4.2.2 Assimilation   Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.2.

2.4.3 Carnivorous Plants   - Reading: Botanical Society of America: Carnivorous Plants Online: “Carnivorous Plants / Insectivorous Plants” Link: Botanical Society of America: Carnivorous Plants Online: “Carnivorous Plants / Insectivorous Plants” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read this introductory chapter on carnivorous plants.  You do not need to worry about learning the different species here; just appreciate the diversity.
 
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  • Reading: International Carnivorous Plant Society: “What Are Carnivorous Plants?” “Murderous Plants,” “Carnivorous Plant Trapping Mechanisms,” “Carnivorous Plant Digestion and Nutrient Assimilation,” and “Costs of Carnivory” Links: International Carnivorous Plant Society: “What Are Carnivorous Plants?” (HTML), “Murderous Plants” (HTML), “Carnivorous Plant Trapping Mechanisms” (HTML), “Carnivorous Plant Digestion and Nutrient Assimilation” (HTML), and “Costs of Carnivory” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read all the chapters linked above on carnivorous plants.  Browse any species that interest you, but make sure to read and learn about the following example species:  Dionaea sp., Drosera sp., Sarracenia sp., and Utricularia sp.  What type of trap does each species use?  How do carnivorous plants differ from “normal” plants?  What are the disadvantages of being carnivorous?  What are the advantages?
     
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2.4.3.1 Why Carnivorous?   Note: This topic is covered by the resources below Subunit 2.4.3.

2.4.3.2 Typical Habitat   Note: This topic is covered by the resources below Subunit 2.4.3.

2.4.3.3 Types of Traps   Note: This topic is covered by the resources below Subunit 2.4.3.

2.4.3.4 Example Species   Note: This topic is covered by the resources below Subunit 2.4.3.

2.5 Growth and Development   2.5.1 Plant Hormones   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Garland Science: Alberts, et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.): “Chapter 21: Plant Development” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Garland Science: Alberts, et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.)“Chapter 21:  Plant Development” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read this chapter on plant development.
 
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  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Phytohormones (Plant Hormones) and other Growth Regulators” and “Plant Hormones” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture Biology 1B – Lecture 10: Plant Growth Substances 1”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture “Biology 1B – Lecture 10: Plant Growth Substances 1”” (PDF)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 10.”  Please print this out, if possible, or keep the outline open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s lecture below.  Note that this reading will cover the topics outlined in sections 2.5.1.1 through 2.5.1.5. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 10: Plant Growth Substances 1” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 10: Plant Growth Substances 1” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire lecture (about 49 minutes) in which Professor Feldman begins the first of two lectures covering plant growth substances.  Here, he talks about auxins and gibberellins.Note that this lecture will cover the topics outlined in sections 2.5.1.1 through 2.5.1.5. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture Biology 1B – Lecture 11: Plant Growth Substances 2”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture “Biology 1B – Lecture 11: Plant Growth Substances 2”” (PDF)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 11.”  Please print this out, if possible, or keep the outline open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s lecture below.  Note that this reading will cover the topics outlined in sections 2.5.1.1 through 2.5.1.5. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 11: Plant Growth Substances 2” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 11: Plant Growth Substances 2” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire lecture (about 50 minutes) in which Professor Feldman continues his presentation on plant growth substances.  Here, he talks about cytokinins, ethylene, and abscisic acid.  Note that this lecture will cover the topics outlined in sections 2.5.1.1 through 2.5.1.5. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on   the webpage above.

2.5.1.1 Auxins   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Auxins” and “More about Auxins” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Auxins” (HTML) and “More about Auxins” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read these chapters on auxins, which are responsible for phototropism (growing toward light).  You will read more on phototropism in Subunit 2.5.3.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Auxins” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Auxins” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Auxins” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this short section on auxins.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.5.1.2 Gibberellins   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Gibberellins” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Gibberellins” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read this chapter on the growth hormones called gibberellins.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Gibberellins” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Gibberellins” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Gibberellins” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this short section on gibberellins.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.5.1.3 Cytokinins   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Cytokinins” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Cytokinins” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read this chapter on the growth hormones called cytokinins.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online - The Internet Hypertextbook: “Cytokinins” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Cytokinins” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Cytokinins” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this short section on cytokinins.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.5.1.4 Ethylene   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Ethylene” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website:  “Ethylene” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read this chapter on the growth hormone, ethylene.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Ethylene” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Ethylene” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Ethylene” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this short section on ethylene.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.5.1.5 Abscisic Acid   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Dormin” Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Dormin” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read this chapter on the growth hormone, dormin, also called abscisic acid.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Abscisic Acid” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Abscisic Acid” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Abscisic Acid” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this short section on abscisic acid.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.5.1.6 Jasmonic Acid   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Jasmonic Acid” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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2.5.1.7 Further Growth Regulators   Note: This topic on the further growth regulators (Oligosaccharines, Calcium Ions, and Synthetics) is also covered by the resources below subunit 2.5.1.

2.5.1.7.1 Oligosaccharines   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Oligosaccharines” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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2.5.1.7.2 Calcium Ions   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Calcium Ions” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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2.5.1.7.3 Synthetics   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Synthetic Growth Regulators and Growth Inhibitors” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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2.5.2 Process of Growth   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Garland Science: Alberts, et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.): “Chapter 21: Plant Development” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Garland Science: Alberts, et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.):   “Chapter 21: Plant Development” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this chapter on plant development.  Note that this lecture will cover the topics outlined in subunits 2.5.2.1 through 2.5.2.3.  You have already read about meristems in the reading for Subunit 1.2.1 (Roots).
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.5.2.1 Cell Division   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Cell Cycle” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Cell Cycle” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read this chapter on the cell cycle in plants.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.5.2.2 Meristems   Note: This topic was covered under Subunit 1.2.1. (“Roots”) and under Subunit 2.5.2 (“Process of Growth”).

2.5.2.3 Roots   Note: This topic was covered under Subunit 1.2.1. (“Roots”) and under Subunit 2.5.2 (“Process of Growth”).

2.5.2.4 Photoperiods   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Photoperiodism” and “Phytochrome” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Photoperiodism” (HTML) and “Phytochrome” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the chapter on photoperiodism.  Then, read the chapter on phytochrome, the molecule plants use to detect the length of day.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Photomorphogenesis, Phytochrome” and “Photoperiodism and Stimulation of Flowering, Phytochrome” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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2.5.3 Phototropism   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Blue-Light Responses” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Blue-Light Responses” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read this chapter on phototropism.  There are three major classes of plant growth movements:  phototropism; directional growth of a plant caused by light, gravitropism; plant growth in response to the direction of gravity, and, thigmotropism; plant growth in response to contact with a solid object.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Phototaxis” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Plants Respond to External Stimuli” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Plants Respond to External Stimuli” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this section on the three tropisms:   Phototropism, Gravitropism, and Thigmotropism.  Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 2.5.3, 2.5.4, and 2.5.5.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.5.4 Gravitropism   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Geotropism or Gravitropism” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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2.5.5 Thigmotropism   - Reading: Reading: Kenyon College: Department of Biology’s Plant Portico: Steffan Vartanian’s “Thigmotropism in Tendrils” Link: Kenyon College:  Department of Biology’s Plant Portico: Steffan Vartanian’s “Thigmotropism in Tendrils” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this short chapter on the third major “tropism” exhibited by plants, that of responsiveness to touch, or “thigmotropism.”
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: ultraguitarist’s “Twining Motion of Vines” Link: YouTube: ultraguitarist’s “Twining Motion of Vines” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Watch this short video (40 seconds) showing thigmotropism in a vine shoot.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Seismonasty” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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  • Web Media: YouTube: Kuxkilin’s “Plant Carnivora VS. Rana” Link: YouTube: Kuxkilin’s “Plant Carnivora VS. Rana” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this short video showing seismonasty in Dionea muscipula.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6 Reproduction   - Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Alternations of Generations” Link: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Alternations of Generations” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Dr.
Kimball’s section on life cycles and alternations of generations in
plants.  
    
 Studying this resource should take approximately 30 minutes to
complete.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.1 Asexual Reproduction   - Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Asexual Reproduction in Plants” Links: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Asexual Reproduction in Plants” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire section on asexual reproduction in plants, including the topics: “Stems,” “Leaves,” “Roots,” “Plant Propagation,” and “Apomixis.”
 
Studying this resource should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.1.1 Budding   Note: This topic is covered by the reading in Subunit 2.6.1.

2.6.1.2 Rhizomes   Note: This topic is covered by the reading in Subunit 2.6.1.

2.6.2 Sexual Reproduction   2.6.2.1 Bryophytes   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants - Bryophytes” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants - Bryophytes” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on reproduction of bryophytes.  Bryophytes comprise three separate evolutionary lineages, which are today recognized as mosses (division Bryophyta), liverworts (division Marchantiophyta) and hornworts (division Anthocerotophyta). 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Mosses and Liverworts (Bryophyta)” Link: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Mosses and Liverworts (Bryophyta)” (HTML) Link: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Mosses and Liverworts (Bryophyta)” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the webpage from the beginning through “The Sporophyte Generation” to learn about reproduction in the Bryophytes.
     
    Studying this resource should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Duke University: Professor Jonathan Shaw’s “LiToL: Assembling the Liverwort Tree of Life – Life Cycle” Link: Duke University: Professor Jonathan Shaw’s “LiToL: Assembling the Liverwort Tree of Life – Life Cycle” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this chapter on reproduction of liverworts (Marchantiophyta).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.2.2 Ferns   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants – The Ferns” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants – The Ferns” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on reproduction of ferns, along with all hyperlinks. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Ferns” Link: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Ferns” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire section on reproduction in ferns.
     
    Studying this resource should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.2.3 Gymnosperms   - Reading: Clermont College: Professor J. Stein Carter’s “General Biology III: Gymnosperms” Link: Clermont College: Professor J. Stein Carter’s “General Biology III: Gymnosperms” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter for an overview on reproduction in gymnosperms (conifers).
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.2.4 Angiosperms (Flowering Plants)   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “More Plant Basics” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “More Plant Basics” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Read this chapter on sexual reproduction in flowering plants.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Flowering Plant Reproduction: Flower Structure” and “Flowering Plant Reproduction: Fertilization and Fruits” Links: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Flowering Plant Reproduction: Flower Structure” (HTML) and “Flowering Plant Reproduction: Fertilization and Fruits” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read both chapters, along with all the embedded hyperlinks.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms” Link: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the webpage from the beginning through “Development of the Megaspore” to learn about sexual reproduction in plants.

    Studying this resource should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.3 Pollination   - Reading: U.S. Forest Service: Celebrating Wildflowers: Pollinators: “What is Pollination?” “The Birds and the Bees,” and “Syndromes” Link: U.S. Forest Service:  Celebrating Wildflowers: Pollinators:  “What is Pollination?” (HTML), “The Birds and the Bees” (HTML), and “Syndromes” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read these chapters on pollination.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms” Links: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the text from the section on “Pollination” to the end of the webpage to learn about pollination, fertilization, and the development of seeds and fruits.
     
    Studying this resource should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Interactions of Pollen and Stigman” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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  • Reading: Vanderbilt University: Professor Steve Baskauf’s Bioimages: “Angiosperm Pollination Syndromes” Link: Vanderbilt University:  Professor Steve Baskauf’s Bioimages:Angiosperm Pollination Syndromes” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Now that you have read about how flowering plants pollinate, look at these high resolution photographs of the structures specifically adapted to different means of pollination.  Click on the images for higher resolution.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.3.1 Self-Pollination   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Self-Incompatibility (SI)” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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2.6.3.2 Animal Pollination   - Reading: U.S. Forest Service: Celebrating Wildflowers: Pollinators: “Animal Pollination” and “Plant Strategies” Link: U.S. Forest Service:  Celebrating Wildflowers: Pollinators:Animal Pollination” and “Plant Strategies” (HTML)
 
Instructions: On the U.S. Forest Service website, please read the animal pollination introduction.  Then, on the menu on the left side of the webpage, click on the links for “Ants” through “Wasps;” read these pages on animal pollination.  After, click on the “Plant Strategies” link , and read the introductory information on the webpage.  Under the “Plant Strategies” heading on the left side of the webpage, click on the links and read the webpages for the following topics on flower plants: “Visual Cues,” “Scent,” “Food,” Mimicry,” and Entrapment.”
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.3.3 Wind Pollination   - Reading: U.S. Forest Service: Celebrating Wildflowers: Pollinators: “Wind and Water Pollination” Link: U.S. Forest Service:  Celebrating Wildflowers: Pollinators: “Wind and Water Pollination” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read this chapter on wind and water pollination.  Note that this topic is also covered by the reading below subunit 2.6.3.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.4 Seed Dispersal   - Reading: Antranik.org’s “The Ingenious Ways Plants Disperse Their Seeds” Link: Antranik.org’s “The Ingenious Ways Plants Disperse Their Seeds” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this chapter about seed and fruit dispersal by wind, water, animals, and mechanical means.  Watch the embedded videos.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Fruits and Seeds” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

  • Reading: Vanderbilt University’s Department of Biological Sciences: Professor Steve Baskauf’s Bioimages: “Fruit and Seed Dispersal” Link: Vanderbilt University’s Department of Biological Sciences:  Professor Steve Baskauf’s Bioimages: “Fruit and Seed Dispersal” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Look at these high resolution photos of plant adaptations for fruit and seed dispersal.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.4.1 Wind Dispersal   Note: This topic is also covered by the reading below subunit 2.6.4.

  • Reading: Palomar College: Professor Wayne Armstrong’s Wayne’s Word: “Blowing in the Wind: Seeds & Fruits Dispersed by Wind” Link: Palomar College: Professor Wayne Armstrong’s Wayne’s Word: “Blowing in the Wind:  Seeds & Fruits Dispersed by Wind” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this chapter describing seed and fruit dispersal by wind.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.4.2 Water Disposal   Note: This topic is also covered by the reading below subunit 2.6.4.

  • Reading: Palomar College: Professor Wayne Armstrong’s Wayne’s Word: “Drift Seeds And Drift Fruits: Seeds That Ride The Ocean Currents” Link: Palomar College: Professor Wayne Armstrong’s Wayne’s Word: “Drift Seeds And Drift Fruits:  Seeds That Ride The Ocean Currents” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please skim this chapter describing the variety of plants that disperse seeds and fruits by water.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.4.3 Dispersal by Animals   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 2.6.4.

2.6.4.4 Other Methods (Mechanical)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 2.6.4.

2.6.4.5 Seed Dormancy   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information: Biochemical Journal: Dr. P. F. Wareing’s “The Control of Seed Dormancy” Links: National Center for Biotechnology Information: Biochemical Journal: Dr. P. F. Wareing’s “The Control of Seed Dormancy”
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, select the “complete article” link to download the PDF, and read Dr. Wareing’s brief paper on seed dormancy. 
 
Studying this article should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.5 Alternation of Generations   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants – The Plant Life Cycle” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Biological Diversity: Nonvascular Plants and Nonseed Vascular Plants – The Plant Life Cycle” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this chapter on the plant life cycle, along with all embedded hyperlinks.  Note that this reading contains the material you need to know for units 2.6.5.1 and 2.6.5.2.
 
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2.6.5.1 Haploid Phase   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 2.6.5.  Plants have an alternation of generations: the diploid spore-producing plant (sporophyte) alternates with the haploid gamete-producing plant (gametophyte).  Here, focus your attention on the gametophyte.

2.6.5.2 Diploid Phase   Note: This topic is covered by the reading below sub-subunit 2.6.5.  Plants have an alternation of generations: the diploid spore-producing plant (sporophyte) alternates with the haploid gamete-producing plant (gametophyte).  Here, focus your attention on the sporophyte.