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BIO306: Botany

Unit 1: Plant Anatomy   In this unit, you will learn the anatomy of the plant.  Anatomy is Greek for “a cutting up.”  Plant anatomy, therefore, examines the *structure** of plant parts, their forms, and how those parts are organized.  In contrast, plant physiology, which you will study in Unit 2, is from the Greek for “relationship to nature,” and concerns the function of the plant parts.  Anatomy and physiology are inextricably linked—the structure determines the function, and vice versa.  Natural selection is an extremely efficient engineer.*
 
Recall from BIO101 and BIO102 the different organization levels of organisms.  Atoms bond to form molecules, molecules combine to form organelles, and organelles combine to form cells.  Specialized cells come together to form tissues that have specialized functions.  Groups of specialized tissues, in turn, combine to form organs--more complex structures that carry out more complex processes.  Groups of organs which function together for one common purpose are called organ systems.  Multiple organ systems make up the organism; i.e., the plant.
 
*In this unit, you will learn the anatomy of the plant at the organelle, cell, tissue, organ, and organ system level.  In Unit 2, you will turn to the physiology, or functions, of the anatomical structures you have learned here.

In this class, we will focus primarily on the anatomy and physiology of higher (flowering) plants, or angiosperms.  A more detailed study of other, more “lower,” plants, such as nonvascular plants (mosses, liverworts and hornworts), vascular seedless plants (whisk ferns, club mosses, horsetails, and true ferns), and vascular nonflowering seeded plants (gymnosperms) are reserved for a higher level Botany course.  Members of the Kingdoms Fungi (mushrooms) and Protista (algae and single-celled photosynthetic organisms) are traditionally covered in a general Botany course.  However, since you have already learned this material in BIO102, we omit these Kingdoms here.*

Unit 1 Time Advisory
This unit will take approximately 15 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 1.1:  7 hours

☐    Subunit 1.1.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 1.1.2: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 1.1.2.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 1.1.2.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 1.1.2.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 1.1.2.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 1.2: 8 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2.2: 4 hours

☐    Readings: 2 hours

☐    Lectures: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2.3: 0.25 hour

☐    Subunit 1.2.4: 1.75 hours

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Identify the organelles of a eukaryotic cell. - Compare and contrast animal and plant cells. - Identify the specialized forms of plant cells. - Identify the different tissues that make up the plant. - Identify the different organs and organ systems (roots, stems, leaves, and flowers) that make up the plant. 

1.1 The Plant Cell   1.1.1 Unique Characteristics   - Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Cytoskeleton” Link: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Cytoskeleton” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please complete this reading on the cytoskeleton. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Cells and Tissues or What Is Seen through a Microscope?” and “The Structure of a Plant Cell” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

  • Reading: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website: “Basic Plant Cytology 1” and “Basic Plant Cytology 2” Links: Eastern Connecticut State University: Professor Ross E. Koning’s Plant Physiology Information Website:  “Basic Plant Cytology 1” (HTML) and “Basic Plant Cytology 2” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Please complete these readings on plant cell biology (cytology). 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.2 Cell and Tissue Types   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Cell and Tissue Type Introduction” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Cell and Tissue Type Introduction
 
Instructions: Please download the PDF linked above, and read this introductory information on cell and tissue types.

1.1.2.1 Introduction to Plant Tissues   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Tissues” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Plants and Their Structure: General Plant Organization” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Plants and Their Structure: General Plant Organization” (HTML)
     
     Instructions: Read this entire chapter by Professor Farabee, which introduces the general organization of the plant.  A plant has two organ systems: a shoot system and a root system.  There are three tissues which make up organs: ground tissue, vascular tissue, and dermal tissue.  Each tissue is composed of different cells.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 6: Cells, Tissues (#6)” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 6: Cells, Tissues (#6)” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire lecture (about 50 minutes), in which Professor Feldman covers the cells and tissues of the plant.  Note that this video lecture will cover the material you need to know in the remaining sections outlined under subunit 1.1.2.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture Biology 1B – Lecture 6: Cells, Tissues (#6)”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture “Biology 1B – Lecture 6:  Cells, Tissues (#6)”” (PDF)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 6.”  Please print this out, if possible, or leave the outline open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s lecture below. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above

1.1.2.2 Ground Tissue System   1.1.2.2.1 Parenchyma   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Plants and Their Structure: Parenchyma” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Plants and Their Structure:  Parenchyma” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section on parenchymal tissue.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Tissues: Ground Tissues or Parenchyma” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

  • Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Parenchyma” Link: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Parenchyma” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Dr. Kimball’s section on Parenchymal tissue.  Make sure to click on the “View” hyperlinks in this section.
     
    Studying this section should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.2.2.2 Collenchyma   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Plants and Their Structure: Collenchyma” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Plants and Their Structure:  Collenchyma” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section on collenchymal tissue.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Collenchyma” Link: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Collenchyma” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Dr. Kimball’s section on Collenchymal tissue.  Make sure to click on the “View” hyperlink in this section.
     
    Studying this section should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.2.2.3 Sclerenchyma   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Plants and Their Structure: Sclerenchyma” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Plants and Their Structure:  Sclerenchyma” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section on sclerenchyma tissue.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Sclerenchyma” Link: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Sclerenchyma” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Dr. Kimball’s section on Sclerenchymal tissue.  Make sure to click on the “view” hyperlink in this section.
     
    Studying this section should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.2.3 Vascular Tissue System   1.1.2.3.1 Xylem   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Plants and Their Structure: Xylem” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Plants and Their Structure:  Xylem” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section on xylem tissue.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Xylem” Link: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Xylem” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Dr. Kimball’s section on Xylem tissue.  Make sure to click on the “view” hyperlinks in this section.
     
    Studying this section should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.2.3.2 Phloem   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Plants and Their Structure: Phloem” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Plants and Their Structure:  Phloem” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section on phloem tissue.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Phloem” Link: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Phloem” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Dr. Kimball’s section on Phloem tissue.
     
    Studying this section should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.2.4 Dermal Tissue System   1.1.2.4.1 Epidermis   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Plants and Their Structure: Epidermis” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Plants and Their Structure:  Epidermis” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section on epidermal tissue.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Protective” Link: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Protective” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Dr. Kimball’s section on Epidermis tissue.  Note that he refers to Epidermis tissue as “Protective” tissue.  Make sure you click on the “view” hyperlink in this section.
     
    Studying this section should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.2.4.2 Periderm   - Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Dermal, Parenchyma and Assimilation Tissues: Secondary Dermal Tissues” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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1.2 Plant Organs   - Reading: WikiBooks: Dr. Eric Guinther, et al.’s Study Guide to the Science of Botany: A Free Online Textbook: “Chapter 4. Plant Vegetative Organs” Link: WikiBooks: Dr. Eric Guinther, et al.’s Study Guide to the Science of Botany: A Free Online Textbook: Chapter 4. Plant Vegetative Organs” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  This reading introduces the material you need to know for all of subunit 1.2, Plant Organs.  Please read this chapter and the hyperlinks for “Leaves (forms),” “Stem,” and “Root.”
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above

1.2.1 Roots   - Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Roots” Link: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Roots” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Dr.
Kimball’s sections on plant roots: “The Root Tip,” “The Region of
Elongation,” and “The Region of Differentiation.”  Please note that
this material also covers the topic outlined in sub-subunit 3.2.1.  
    
 Studying these resources should take approximately 30 minutes to
complete.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: University of Hamburg: Professor Alice Bergfeld, Rolf Bergmann, and Peter v. Sengbusch’s Botany Online: The Internet Hypertextbook: “Meristems” and “Longitudinal Section through a Root Tip of Zea mays” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 7: Roots, Structure and Development” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 7: Roots, Structure and Development” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire lecture (50:29 minutes) in which Professor Feldman covers the cells and tissues of the plant.  Note that this lecture will cover the material you need to know for subunits 1.2.1.1 and 1.2.1.2.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture Biology 1B – Lecture 7: Roots, Structure and Development”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture “Biology 1B – Lecture 7: Roots, Structure and Development”” (PDF)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 7.”  Please print this out, if possible, or keep the lecture open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s video lecture below.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 1.2.1.1 and 1.2.1.2.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above

1.2.2 Stems   - Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Stems” Link: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “Stems” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
webpage to learn about plant stems in both monocots and dicots.  
    
 Studying this webpage should take approximately 15 minutes to
complete.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture Biology 1B – Lecture 8: Shoots, Primary Structure”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture “Biology 1B – Lecture 8: Shoots, Primary Structure”” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 8.”  Please print this out, if possible, or leave the lecture open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s video lecture below.  Professor Feldman refers to stems and leaves, collectively, as “shoots.”  Therefore, his lectures and lecture outlines on shoots will cover both this Subunit 1.2.2 (stems) and Subunit 1.2.3 (leaves). 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above

  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 8: Shoots, Primary Structure” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 8: Shoots, Primary Structure” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire lecture (48:12 minutes), in which Professor Feldman covers stems.  Note that this lecture will cover the material you need to know for Subunits 1.2.2.1 and 1.2.2.2, as well as 1.2.3 and inclusive Subunits 1.2.3.1 and 1.2.3.2.  
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on   the webpage above.

  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture Biology 1B – Lecture 9: Shoots, Secondary Structure”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture “Biology 1B – Lecture 9: Shoots, Secondary Structure”” (PDF)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 9.”  Please print this out, if possible, or leave the outline open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s video lecture below.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for Subunits 1.2.2.1 and 1.2.2.2, as well as 1.2.3 and inclusive Subunits 1.2.3.1 and 1.2.3.2. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 9: Shoots, Secondary Structure” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 9: Shoots, Secondary Structure” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this entire lecture (about 50 minutes), in which Professor Feldman continues his lecture on stems.  Note that this lecture will cover the material you need to know for Subunits 1.2.2.1 and 1.2.2.2, as well as 1.2.3 and inclusive Subunits 1.2.3.1 and 1.2.3.2. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.3 Leaves   Note: This topic is also covered by the resources beneath Subunit 1.2.2.

  • Reading: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “The Leaf” Links: Dr. John W. Kimball’s “The Leaf” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire webpage on plant leaves.
     
    Studying this resource should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.4 Flowers   - Lecture: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 12: Flowering” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Biology 1B - Lecture 12: Flowering” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch this entire lecture (about 50 minutes) in which Professor Feldman talks about flowers.  Note that this lecture will cover the material you need to know for subunits 1.2.4.1 and 1.2.4.2. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on   the webpage above.

  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book: “Flowering Plant Reproduction: Flower Structure” and “Flowering Plant Reproduction: Fertilization and Fruits” Links: Estrella Mountain Community College: Professor Michael J. Farabee’s On-Line Biology Book:Flowering Plant Reproduction: Flower Structure” (HTML) and “Flowering Plant Reproduction: Fertilization and Fruits” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read both chapters in their entirety.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 1.2.4.1 and 1.2.4.2.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture Biology 1B – Lecture 12: Flowering”” Link: UC Berkeley: Professor Lewis Feldman’s “Outline for “Lecture “Biology 1B – Lecture 12: Flowering”” (PDF)
     
    Instructions:  Click on the above link to go to the webpage for Professor Feldman’s 2011 Biology 1B course.  Scroll down and click on the PDF file entitled “Outline 12.”  Please print this out, if possible, or leave the outline open to use in conjunction with Professor Feldman’s lecture below.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 1.2.4.1 and 1.2.4.2. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: WikiBooks: Dr. Eric Guinther, et al.’s Study Guide to the Science of Botany: A Free Online Textbook: “Chapter 5. Plant Reproduction” Link: WikiBooks: Dr. Eric Guinther, et al.’s Study Guide to the Science of Botany: A Free Online Textbook:Chapter 5. Plant Reproduction” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Please read this chapter, and click on the following embedded hyperlinks:  “The Flower,” “calyx,” “corolla,” “androecium,” “gynoecium,” and “inflorescence.”  Be sure to read about and understand the meaning of each of the following terms: bract, inflorescence, panicle, raceme, spadix, and spikelet.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 1.2.4.1 and 1.2.4.2.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.