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BIO305: Genetics

Unit 7: Bacterial Genetics   Scientists have come to understand bacterial genetics. Bacteria are prokaryotes, and they multiple by binary fission. Binary fission is a form of asexual reproduction, and it differs from mitosis at the molecular level. Different bacterial species can exchange their DNA through several mechanisms; this bacterial feature has been essential in the development of recombinant DNA technology. We have learned to introduce new genes into bacteria. In fact, bacteria with designed genes can do useful things for us. For example, researchers have introduced petroleum-consuming genes to bacteria in the hopes of creating recombinant bacteria capable of quickly and efficiently cleaning up oil spills.

Unit 7 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 10.75 hours to complete
 
☐    Subunit 7.1: 0.5 hours
 
☐    Subunit 7.2: 4.5 hours
 
☐    Subunit 7.3: 4 hours
 
☐    Subunit 7.4: 1.75 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - explain gene regulation with operons; - explain gene manipulation in bacteria; - compare and contrast as well as discuss conjugation, transformation, and transduction; and - describe the regulation bacterial gene expression.

7.1 Bacteria   - Reading: University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Microbiology and Immunology Online: “Part Two: Bacteriology” Link: University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Microbiology and Immunology Online: “Part Two: Bacteriology” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Scroll down to locate Chapter One, click on this link, and review the basic features of the bacterial cell. Recall that bacteria are prokaryotes. Also, please feel free to explore any hyperlinks on this webpage. Note that the left side of the webpage contains links to great drawings to help your understanding.
 
Reading this chapter should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.2 Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes   - Reading: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 16: Prokaryotic Regulation: Negative Control” Link: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 16: Prokaryotic Regulation: Negative Control” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Select the PDF link for “Lecture 16: Prokaryotic Regulation: Negative Control,” and read these lecture notes. These lecture notes describe the Lac operon and mutations that affect the function of the Lac operon. This text is technical, so please plan to read it several times for a full understanding.
 
Reading these lecture notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 17: Prokaryotic Regulation: Positive Control” Link: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 17: Prokaryotic Regulation: Positive Control” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Select the PDF link for “Lecture 17: Prokaryotic Regulation: Positive Control,” and read these lecture notes. These lecture notes describe the Mal operon and mutations that affect the function of the Mal operon. This text is technical, so please plan to read it several times for a full understanding.
     
    Reading these lecture notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 18: Prokaryotic Regulation: Regulatory Circuits” Link: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 18: Prokaryotic Regulation: Regulatory Circuits” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Select the PDF link for “Lecture 18: Prokaryotic Regulation: Regulatory Circuits,” and read these lecture notes. These lecture notes describe an algorithm that can be used to characterize operons. These notes also briefly compare gene expression regulation in bacteria, eukaryotes, and viruses. This text is technical, so please plan to read it several times for a full understanding.
     
    Reading these lecture notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.3 Horizontal Gene Transfer: Transformation, Transduction, and Conjugation   - Reading: BioMed Central: Biology Direct: Aaron A. Vogan and Paul G. Higgs’ “The Advantages and Disadvantages of Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Emergence of the First Species” Link: BioMed Central: Biology Direct: Aaron A. Vogan and Paul G. Higgs’ “The Advantages and Disadvantages of Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Emergence of the First Species” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article. This text is technical, so you may want to read it several times for a full understanding. Horizontal gene transfer is common between prokaryotes.
 
Reading this article should take approximately 2 hours.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Gene Mayer’s “Bacteriology – Chapter Eight: Exchange of Genetic Information” Link: University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Dr. Gene Mayer’s “Bacteriology – Chapter Eight: Exchange of Genetic Information” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the following sections: “A. Transformation,” “B. Transduction,” and “C. Conjugation.” These are mechanisms that allow the exchange of DNA within and across bacterial species.
     
    Reading these sections should take approximately 2 hours.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.4 Gene Manipulation in Bacteria   - Reading: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 13: Bacterial Genetics: Transduction” Link: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 13: Bacterial Genetics: Transduction” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Select the PDF link for “Lecture 13: Bacterial Genetics: Transduction,” and read these lecture notes. These lecture notes describe a transduction utilizing method for the introduction of genes into bacteria. This text is technical, so please plan to read it several times for a full understanding.
 
Reading these lecture notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 7 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 7 Assessment” (HTML)
     
    Instruction: Complete the multiple choice and true/false Unit 7 Assessment.
     
    Completing this assessment should take approximately 15 minutes.