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BIO305: Genetics

Unit 1: Mendelian Genetics   This first unit consists of an overview of Gregor Mendel’s ideas about genetics, published in 1886. Mendel discovered that the traits of a parent could be separated, that there were two sets of traits in each parent (one given by a mother; one given by a father), and that one set of traits might be dominant over the other. His observations of the segregation and dominance of traits are crucial to understanding how traits are passed on. Mendel also found that traits were inherited in ratios that could be predicted by simple math.

Unit 1 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 9.5 hours to complete:
 
☐    Subunit 1.1: 1 hour
 
☐    Subunit 1.2: 3.25 hours
 
☐    Subunit 1.3: 1.25 hours
 
☐    Subunit 1.4: 0.25 hours
 
☐    Subunit 1.5: 0.5 hours
 
☐    Subunit 1.6: 0.25 hours
 
☐    Subunit 1.7: 0.75 hours
 
☐    Subunit 1.8: 1 hour
 
☐    Subunit 1.9: 1.25

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - use a Punnett Square to predict the offspring genotype and phenotype; - identify the phenotype of the offspring in monohybrid and dihybrid crosses; - identify the genotype of the offspring in monohybrid and dihybrid crosses; - construct human pedigrees, and characterize inheritance based on the pedigree pattern; and - use the rules of addition and multiplication to predict the probability of offspring with a certain genotype and/or phenotype.

1.1 Heredity and Genetics   - Web Media: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation: Lynn Carpenter’s “An Overview of Genetics” Link: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation: Lynn Carpenter’s “An Overview of Genetics” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this video for an overview of the topics presented in this unit and a preview of a few of the lessons to come.
 
Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • Reading: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 1: Physical Structure of the Gene” Link: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 1: Physical Structure of the Gene” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Select the PDF link for “Lecture 1: Physical Structure of the Gene,” and read these lecture notes.
     
    Reading these lecture notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Khan Academy’s “Introduction to Heredity” Link: Khan Academy’s “Introduction to Heredity” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this lecture for a quick review of heredity.
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2 Mendelian Genetics   - Lecture: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Eric Lander’s “Lecture 6: Genetics 1” Link: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Eric Lander’s “Lecture 6: Genetics 1” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Locate the Transcript tab under the video, and read the transcript of the lecture. Next, watch the lecture, and take advantage of the transcript for better understanding. This lecture is technical, so please plan to pause and listen to parts of the lecture several times as needed for a full understanding.
 
Watching this lecture, pausing to take notes, and reading the transcript should take approximately 2 hours.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 3: Mendelian Genetics” Link: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 3: Mendelian Genetics” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Select the PDF link for “Lecture 3: Mendelian Genetics,” and read these lecture notes. Recall that haploid organisms have one set of chromosomes and diploid organisms have two sets of chromosomes. We will discuss ploidy in Unit 5. This text is technical, so please plan to read it several times for a full understanding.
     
    Reading these lecture notes should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation: Lynn Carpenter’s “The Father of Genetics” Link: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation: Lynn Carpenter’s “The Father of Genetics” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this video for an introduction to Mendel and his work.
     
    Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

1.3 Punnett Square   - Lecture: Khan Academy’s “Punnet Square Fun” Link: Khan Academy’s “Punnett Square Fun” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this video lecture for a quick review of genes that can be inherited by the offspring of homozygous and heterozygous parents and the possible offspring phenotypes.
 
Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation: Lynn Carpenter’s “The Punnett Square” Link: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation: Lynn Carpenter’s “The Punnett Square” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this video to learn about the Punnett Square, its uses, and its development.
     
    Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's “Mendelian Inheritance of Traits” Link: The Saylor Foundation's “Mendelian Inheritance of Traits” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Complete this multiple choice assessment. Clicking on an answer will bring you to another page: If your answer is correct, then it is acknowledged with a short explanation. If your answer is wrong, you will be taken to a tutorial page. Study the tutorial page carefully. At the end of the tutorial page, you will be prompted to return to the assessment to try it again.
     
    Completing this assessment should take approximately 15 minutes.

1.4 Monohybrid Cross   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “A Monohybrid Cross Example Using Mendel’s Sweet Peas” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “A Monohybrid Cross Example Using Mendel’s Sweet Peas” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this article for an overview of a monohybrid cross.
 
Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

1.5 Dihybrid Cross   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “A Dihybrid Cross Example Using Mendel’s Sweet Peas” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “A Dihybrid Cross Example Using Mendel’s Sweet Peas” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article, which builds on the monohybrid cross discussed earlier.
 
Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Independent Assortment – Dihybrid Cross” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Independent Assortment – Dihybrid Cross” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Complete this multiple choice assessment. Clicking on an answer will bring you to another page: If your answer is correct, then it is acknowledged with a short explanation. If your answer is wrong, you will be taken to a tutorial page. Study the tutorial page carefully. At the end of the tutorial page, you will be prompted to return to the assessment to try it again.
     
    Completing this assessment should take approximately 15 minutes.

1.6 Trihybrid Cross and Multiple Trait Inheritance   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “A Trihybrid Cross Example Using Mendel’s Sweet Peas” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “A Trihybrid Cross Example Using Mendel’s Sweet Peas” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article, which builds on the monohybrid and dihybrid crosses presented earlier.
 
Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

1.7 Probability   - Web Media: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation: Lynn Carpenter’s “Probability and You” Link: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation: Lynn Carpenter’s “Probability and You” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this video for an overview of the laws of probability. Consider how this approach compares to using the Punnett Square.
 
Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • Reading: Delta State University: Dr. John Tiftickjian’s “Genetics and Probability” Link: Delta State University: Dr. John Tiftickjian’s “Genetics and Probability” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article, which will prepare you to work through the probability problems at the end of this unit. The Punnett Square was never meant to be used to solve real genetics problems; it is only a teaching tool. As you saw in the previous subunit, once you get into crosses with three genes or more, things get messy. Probability is another way to identify and explain Mendel’s genetic patterns. This is generally recommended for more complicated genetics problems. This reading will give you a great introduction to probability.
     
    Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.8 Pedigrees and Inheritance in Humans   - Reading: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 4: Probability and Pedigrees” Link: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Professor Chris Kaiser’s “Lecture 4: Probability and Pedigrees” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Select the PDF link for “Lecture 4: Probability and Pedigrees,” and read these lecture notes. This text explains the rule of probability and the rule of addition. These rules are used in complex genetic problems, in which the Punnett Square cannot be used. This text is technical, so please plan to read it several times for a full understanding.
 
Reading these lecture notes should take approximately 1 hour.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation: Lynn Carpenter’s “Your Pedigree” Link: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation: Lynn Carpenter’s “Your Pedigree” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this optional video for an introduction to human pedigrees and a famous example of hemophilia – otherwise known as The Royal Disease.
     
    Watching this optional video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

1.9 Review Information   - Reading: DNA Learning Center and Cold Springs Harbor Lab: “Classical Genetics” Link: DNA Learning Center and Cold Springs Harbor Lab: “Classical Genetics” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Work through this genetics tutorial. Some of this will be repetitive but should help to solidify the concepts and theories you have worked on in this unit.
 
Working throughh this tutorial should take approximately 1 hour.       
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation: Lynn Carpenter’s “Unit 1 Review” Link: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation: Lynn Carpenter’s “Unit 1 Review” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this video for a recap of some of the basic concepts covered in Unit 1.
     
    Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take less than 15 minutes.