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BIO304: Human Physiology

Unit 15: The Immune System   The immune system fights off infection and disease. It begins with lines of defense (i.e. your skin) and is backed by the blood and lymphatic systems. White blood cells patrol the blood and lymphatic system looking for foreign invaders. Five white blood cell types are found in the blood, including those that phagocytize (engulf) bacteria and amoebas. Others release histamine, other granules, or antibodies in allergic or antigen specific responses. Some of these move out of the blood into the tissue and specialized immune system cells are also found in the tissue space. Collectively these cells, along with other factors and organs such as the spleen and the lymph nodes, protect your body and help maintain homeostasis. In this unit, we will study the ways that your immune system works to keep your body safe and in good health.

Unit 15 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 9.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 15.1: 2.25 hours

☐    Subunit 15.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 15.3: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 15.4: 4 hours
 

☐    Reading: 0.5 hours

☐    Web Media: 0.5 hours

☐    Assessments: 3 hours

Unit15 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - describe the structures and functions of the organs within the immune system; - describe the pathways of the immune system, including the specific and non-specific defense mechanisms; and - explain immune disorders, such as allergies, autoimmune disorders, and AIDS.

15.1 Immune System: Overview   - Reading: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “The Immune System” Link: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “The Immune System” (HTML)

 Instructions: Click on the link above and read this webpage about
the immune system, which includes an explanation of the lymphatic
system and its importance to the body’s overall defense mechanisms.
This system allows us to live in a world that is filled with
microorganisms. It also protects us from our own cells that get out
of control and at times even causes disease.  

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: YouTube: Garland Science’s “Immune Response” and Dr. Moffet’s “Lymphatic System” Link: YouTube: Garland Science’s “Immune Response” (YouTube) and Dr. Moffet’s “Lymphatic System” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Click on the links above and watch these videos for a visual review of the immune response and the lymphatic system. Take note of the organs, tissues, and cells involved and how they work together for a common purpose. Did you notice how many different cells and factors are involved in the immune response? This video is just an overview and does not cover all of the players in this process. It is a very complex job protecting the body from harm!

    Watching these videos and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

15.2 Immune System: Organs and Cells   - Reading: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “The Immune System” Link: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “The Immune System” (HTML)

 Instructions: Click on the link above and read the webpage,
focusing on the sections titled “Organs, Tissues, and Cells of the
Immune System” through “Leukocytes” and “Different Types of
Lymphocyte Cells” to learn about the organs and cells involved in
defense. As you complete this reading, please focus on answering two
questions: 1) What are the “lines of defense,” or the “players” in
immune response? 2) What are the steps in the process of immune
response.  

 Reading this webpage and answering the questions above should take
approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

15.3 Immune System Responses   - Reading: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “Defense against Infection” (HTML) including “Immune Response Pathway” Link: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “Defense against Infection” (HTML) including “Immune Response Pathway” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the section titled “Defense against Infection,”
including “Immune Response Pathway,” for some general information
about the different types of defense mechanisms and body’s
responses.  

 Reading these sections should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

15.4 Immune System Disorders   - Reading: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “Immune System Disorders” through “Immunodeficiency Diseases” Link: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “Immune System Disorders” (HTML) through “Immunodeficiency Diseases” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the sections titled “Immune System Disorders”
through “Immunodeficiency Diseases” to learn about the diseases that
can affect the physiology of the immune system.  

 Reading these sections should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Rufus Rajadurai’s “Allergy Animation”, Dr.Stone16’s “Autoimmune Disorders: Intro”, and Illumistream Health’s “When HIV Becomes AIDS” Link: YouTube: Dr. Rufus Rajadurai’s “Allergy Animation” (YouTube), Dr.Stone16’s “Autoimmune Disorders: Intro” (YouTube), and Illumistream Health’s “When HIV Becomes AIDS” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Sometimes the immune system is overactive or underactive, and this causes problems. Watch these YouTube videos to learn about allergens, mechanisms of autoimmune disorders, and AIDS. Think about the differences between immunodeficiency and autoimmune disease, and consider how the manifestation of symptoms illustrates the shift.

    Watching these videos and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Online Learning Center: Seeley, Stephens, & Tate’s “Lymphatic System and Immunity: Clinical Application” Link: McGraw-Hill Online Learning Center: Seeley, Stephens, & Tate’s “Lymphatic System and Immunity: Clinical Application” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this example of a clinical application of knowledge of lymphatic system physiology, and respond to the questions that follow. Click the “Submit Answers” button at the bottom of the page for instant feedback.

    Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Online Learning Center: Stuart Ira Fox’s “The Immune System Quiz: Multiple Choice 1” (HTML) “The Immune System Quiz: Fill in the Blanks” (HTML), and “The Immune System Quiz: Critical Thinking Exercises” Link: McGraw-Hill Online Learning Center: Stuart Ira Fox’s “The Immune System Quiz: Multiple Choice 1” (HTML) “The Immune System Quiz: Fill in the Blanks” (HTML), and “The Immune System Quiz: Critical Thinking Exercises” (HTML)

    Instructions: Click on the links above and complete these quizzes to demonstrate your understanding of basic immune system physiology concepts. For the critical thinking questions, take a second after reading each question to think about how the concepts you have just learned apply, and formulate a short, thoughtful answer. Click the “Submit Answers” button for instant feedback.

    Completing these assessments should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.