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BIO304: Human Physiology

Unit 8: The Endocrine System   Hormones secreted from our endocrine glands regulate numerous processes in our bodies. Testosterone, estrogen, and growth hormone, among others control our development in the womb and following birth into young adulthood. It is also testosterone and estrogen that regulates reproductive function. Thyroid hormones control our metabolism and imbalances may lead to weigh loss or gain, anxiety or depression, sleep and eating disturbances, and even hair and skin changes. Insulin and glucagon from the pancreas determines how glucose is regulated and used by the body cells and keeps us form having blood sugar levels that are too low or too high. In conjunction with the nervous system, the endocrine system is instrumental in maintaining homeostasis.

Unit 8 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 6.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 8.1: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 8.2: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 8.3: 0.25 hours

☐    Subunit 8.4: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 8.5: 0.25 hours

☐    Subunit 8.6: 2.75 hours

Unit8 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - identify the different types of endocrine glands and their specific hormones; - describe the structure and function of the hormones; - describe hormone interactions; - identify hormones released by pituitary glands and explain their functions; - identify hormones released by adrenal gland and explain their functions; - identify hormones released by thyroid and parathyroid glands and explain their functions; and - identify hormones released by pancreas, pineal gland, and sex organs and explain their functions.

8.1 Hormone Structures, Classification, and Mechanisms   - Reading: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “The Endocrine System” Link: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “The Endocrine System” (HTML)

 Instructions: Click on the link above and read this entire webpage
to understand the endocrine system structure and function. This
reading also provides a description of hormone classification and
function. This is a very complex system with a lot of different
factors involved. Additionally, control mechanisms are in place on
multiple levels. You may find that making a summary chart is
helpful. The chart should contain the hormone name, abbreviation,
its source and target, and its action.   

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: YouTube: Paul Andersen’s “The Endocrine System” Link: YouTube: Paul Andersen’s “The Endocrine System” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Click on the link above and watch this video for an overview of the endocrine system and its physiological role in the body.

    Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.2 Hormone Interactions   - Reading: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “Antagonistic Hormones” Link: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “Antagonistic Hormones” (HTML)

 Instructions: Click on the link above and read the section titled
“Antagonistic Hormones” to understand how antagonistic hormones
maintain homeostasis.  

 Reading this section should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.3 Pituitary Gland   - Reading: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “The Pituitary Gland” Link: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “The Pituitary Gland” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the section entitled “The Pituitary Gland” to
learn about the hormones that are released from the posterior and
anterior pituitary glands.  

 Reading this section should take approximately 5 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: YouTube: Neurocirujo’s “Pituitary Gland” Link: YouTube: Neurocirujo’s “Pituitary Gland” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Click on the link above and watch this video for an illustration of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, or the feedback loop among the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and thyroid that ultimately supports and regulates the action of the hormone thyroxin.

    Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 10 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.4 Adrenal Glands   - Web Media: YouTube: ADAM’s “Adrenal Glands Animation” Link: YouTube: ADAM’s “Adrenal Glands Animation” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Click on the link above and watch this video for a
review of how adrenal gland secretions affect the body.  

 Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 5 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “The Adrenal Glands” Link: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “The Adrenal Glands” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the section titled “The Adrenal Glands” to learn how these glands function.

    Reading this section should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.5 Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands   - Reading: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “Thyroid Gland” Link: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “Thyroid Gland” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the section titled “The Thyroid Gland” to learn
how this gland functions.  

 Reading this section should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.6 Other Glands: Pancreas, Pineal Gland, and Reproductive Organs   - Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media’s “The Pancreas, Testes, Ovaries Are Endocrine Glands” Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media’s “The Pancreas, Testes, Ovaries Are Endocrine Glands” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Click on the link above and watch this brief video
for a visual illustration of the hormones released by the pancreas
and sex organs.  

 Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “The Pancreas”, “Sex Organs”, and “Pineal Gland” Link: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “The Pancreas”, “Sex Organs”, and “Pineal Gland” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the sections titled “The Pancreas,” “Sex Organs,” and “Pineal Gland” to learn about the hormonal functions of these organs and hormonal physiological effects on the body.

    Reading these sections should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: McGraw Hill Online Learning Center: Seeley, Stephens, & Tate’s “Endocrine Glands – Clinical Application” Link: McGraw Hill Online Learning Center: Seeley, Stephens, & Tate’s “Endocrine Glands – Clinical Application” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this example and respond to the questions. Then, click the “Submit Answers” button at the bottom of the page for instant grading and feedback.

    Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: McGraw Hill Online Learning Center: Seeley, Stephens, & Tate’s “Endocrine Glands – Chapter Quiz” and Stuart Ira Fox’s “Endocrine Glands – Critical Thinking Exercises” Link: McGraw Hill Online Learning Center: Seeley, Stephens, & Tate’s “Endocrine Glands – Chapter Quiz” (HTML) and Stuart Ira Fox’s “Endocrine Glands – Critical Thinking Exercises” (HTML)

    Instructions: Click on the links above and complete the quizzes to demonstrate your understanding of endocrine system physiology after working through the materials.

    Completing these assessments should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.