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BIO304: Human Physiology

Unit 2: Chemical Composition of the Body and Cell Structure   This unit will cover the basic concepts of chemistry, which are required to understand the molecular make-up of the body. Small chemical elements such as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, among others form larger molecules including carbohydrates, lipids (fats), proteins, and nucleic acids. These macromolecules form the cells that make up tissues and carry out many other important structural and functional roles. You will find lipids and proteins forming the membrane surrounding cells. Proteins and lipids are also hormones, such as the thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone. Our genetic DNA is made up of nucleic acids, as is energy ATP. Without carbohydrates, we would not be able to feed our cells glucose or store it for times when we cannot eat. The importance of these chemical compounds cannot be stressed enough. Once you have a good grasp of this information, review cell physiology. Cells are tiny units of life that work with other cells to keep the body in homeostasis. More information about molecules and cells can also be found in BIO101A or BIO101B: Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 6.25 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 6 hours
 

☐    Web Media: 1 hour
 

☐    Readings: 2 hours

☐    Assessments: 3 hours
 

☐    Subunit 2.2: 0.25 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - describe the structure of an atom, and define chemical bonds; - define “acid” and “base,” and describe the pH scale; - describe the structure and function of the cell, including the nucleus, cytoplasm (organelles and cytosol), and membrane (including the junctions); - describe the characteristics of organic biomolecules; - describe the stages of protein bio-synthesis, including transcription and translation; and - describe the process of cell division, including mitosis and meiosis and their stages.

2.1 Cell Structure and Function: Membrane, Cytoplasm, Nucleus   - Web Media: YouTube: Khan Academy’s “Parts of a Cell” Link: YouTube: Khan Academy’s “Parts of a Cell” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Click on the link above and watch this excellent
video for an overview of the eukaryotic cell structure and the
function of each organelle. The lecturer does a great job describing
the structure of the cell from the outside to the inside in a very
simple, easy to understand manner. Notice how each organelle in the
cell has an important, specific job. Take notes or even try to draw
your own cell as you watch the video. You may remember some of this
information from [BIO 101A or BIO101B: Introduction to Molecular and
Cellular Biology](http://www.saylor.org/majors/biology/).  

 Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerives United States License 3.0](). It
is attributed to the Khan Academy. 
  • Reading: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “Cell Physiology” Link: Wikibooks’ Human Physiology: “Cell Physiology” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this chapter to learn about cells and how these tiny compartments work. Each cell functions on its own and in conjunction with other cells to carry out its job.

    Reading this chapter should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: “Fluid Mosaic Model” Link: YouTube: “Fluid Mosaic Model” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Click on the link above and watch this brief video for a summary of the properties of the cell membrane. Notice that the membrane is made lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates creating a mosaic structure that continuously moves (is fluid). This is the basic idea of the fluid mosaic model, which is often used to describe the cell membrane.

    Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Online Learning Center: Seeley, Stephens, & Tate’s “Structure and Function of the Cell: Labeling Exercises” Link: McGraw-Hill Online Learning Center: Seeley, Stephens, & Tate’s “Structure and Function of the Cell: Labeling Exercises” (HTML)

    Instructions: These labeling exercises review some of the important topics that we have discussed thus far about the cell. Although the exercises are sometimes confusing regarding exactly what is being identified, it is not graded and allows you to test your understanding of cell structure. Complete all six exercises and repeat until you have mastered them.

    Completing these assessments should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Online Learning Center: Stuart Ira Fox’s “Cell Structure and Genetic Control Quiz: Multiple Choice 1” and “Cell Structure and Genetic Control Quiz: Multiple Choice 2” Link: McGraw-Hill Online Learning Center: Stuart Ira Fox’s “Cell Structure and Genetic Control Quiz: Multiple Choice 1” (HTML) and “Cell Structure and Genetic Control Quiz: Multiple Choice 2” (HTML)

    Instructions: Take these quizzes on basic cell structure and function. Click the “Submit Answers” button at the bottom of the pages for instant feedback.

    If the content related to any of the questions is unclear to you, please feel free to return to any of the related material, or search for the information elsewhere online. This can only reinforce your memory and understanding of the material.

    This assessment should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.2 Protein Synthesis   - Web Media: YouTube: Michael Freudiger’s “From RNA to Protein Synthesis” Link: YouTube: Michael Freudiger’s “From RNA to Protein Synthesis” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Click on the link above and watch this brief YouTube
video for a summary of protein synthesis and the role of the
ribosome. Making proteins is important for cell structure and
function. If the cell could not make proteins, we would have no
keratin to provide structure to our skin and nails, no amylase or
lipase for carbohydrate and lipid digestion in the gastrointestinal
track, and no hemoglobin to hold oxygen on the red blood cells.
Without proteins, our cells would die and our body as a whole would
not survive.  

 Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.