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BIO303: Neurobiology

Unit 10: Cortical Brain Functions   The ability to talk, learn, and show emotion are among the most fundamental and intriguing functions of the human brain. This unit will provide an overview of these essential functions, known as “cortical brain functions” despite the fact that are quite complex and involve more than just the brain.

Much of our information about cortical brain function has been derived from examining the symptoms and profiles of patients with damage to specific regions of the brain. Recently, the development of noninvasive procedures has enabled us to examine subjects to further understand neurological mechanisms and thus led to the establishment of a sub-neuroscience field known as cognitive neuroscience. Researchers in this subfield strive to elucidate the molecular and physiological basis for these functions.

Unit 10 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 17 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 10.1: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 10.2: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 10.3: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 10.4: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 10.5: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 10.6: 3 hours

Unit10 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- explain the different cortical cell types and how the Brodman’s areas define functional regions of the cortex; - define the association cortices and their major functions; - explain contralateral neglect syndrome; - define the cortical regions which process speech and language and the meaning of aphasias; - explain how the brain regulates sleep, including the changes during sleep, stages of sleep, and how the circadian rhythm controls sleep; - list some drugs used for sleep disorders, and explain narcolepsy and insomnia; - define how the limbic system, especially the amygdale regulates emotions; - define the parts of the nervous system which control memory; - compare and contrast the different kinds of memory, including declarative and nondeclarative, immediate, short-term, and long-term memory; and - explain how Alzheimer’s Disease leads to memory loss.

10.1 Cortex Overview   10.1.1 White Matter and Grey Matter   - Reading: The University of Texas’s Neuroscience Online: Dr. Nachum Dafny’s “Ch 1: Overview of the Nervous System” Link: The University of Texas’s Neuroscience Online: Dr. Nachum Dafny’s “Ch 1: Overview of the Nervous System” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the first paragraph on the linked page above.
 
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10.1.2 Cell Types   - Reading: The University of Texas’s Neuroscience Online: Dr. Jack Waymire’s “Ch 8: Organization of Cell Types” Link: The University of Texas’s Neuroscience Online: Dr. Jack Waymire’s “Ch 8: Organization of Cell Types” (HTML and Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Read the sections titled “Structural Variation” and “Naming Neurons.” 
 
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10.1.3 Cortical Layers   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 26: Overview of the Cortical Structure” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 26: Overview of the Cortical Structure” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage.
 
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10.1.4 Cortical Lobes   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “The Lateral Surface of the Brain” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “The Lateral Surface of the Brain” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage, and click on the hyperlinks to figures. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.1.5 Brodmann Areas   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 26: An Overview of Cortical Structure” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’sversion of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 26: An Overview of Cortical Structure
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage, click on the embedded hyperlinks, and focus on the figures and tables.
 
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  • Reading: University of Michigan’s “Brodmann Area” Link: University of Michigan’s “Brodmann Area (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the webpage, and view the figures of different views of the brain.
     
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10.2 Association   10.2.1 Association Cortices   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: Ch 26: The Association Cortices: “Overview: The Association Cortices” and “The Association Cortices” Links: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: Ch 26: The Association Cortices: “Overview: The Association Cortices” (HTML) and “The Association Cortices” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the webpages, and click on the hyperlink to Figure 26.1. 
 
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10.2.2 Cortical Input and Output Areas   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 26: Figure 26.3” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 26: Figure 26.3” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Study the linked figure.
 
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10.2.3 Contralateral Neglect Syndrome   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Lesions of the Parietal Association Cortex: Deficits of Attention” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Lesions of the Parietal Association Cortex: Deficits of Attention” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage. Click on all hyperlinks to figures.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.2.4 Deficits of Recognition and Planning   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Planning Neurons” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Planning Neurons” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage, and click on all hyperlinks to figures.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.3 Speech and Language   10.3.1 Broca’s Area   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 27: Aphasias” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 27: Aphasias” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage. This resource also covers section 10.3.2.
 
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10.3.2 Aphasias   Note: This topic is covered by the reading beneath subunit 10.3.1.

10.3.3 Wernicke’s Area   - Reading: Oracle ThinkQuest Education Foundation: “The Brain and Communication” Link: Oracle ThinkQuest Education Foundation: “The Brain and Communication” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage.
 
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10.3.4 Vocal Folds and Speech   - Reading: The University of Texas’s Neuroscience Online: Dr. Nachum Dafny’s “Ch 8: Higher Cortical Functions: Language” Link: The University of Texas’s Neuroscience Online: Dr. Nachum Dafny’s “Ch 8: Higher Cortical Functions: Language” (HTML and Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Read the paragraphs before the section titled “What Is language?”
 
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10.3.5 Right Hemisphere vs. Left Hemisphere   - Reading: The University of Texas’s Neuroscience Online: Dr. Nachum Dafny’s “Ch 9: Higher Cortical Functions: Association and Executive Processing” Link: The University of Texas’s Neuroscience Online: Dr. Nachum Dafny’s “Ch 9: Higher Cortical Functions: Association and Executive Processing” (HTML and Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage. The left hemisphere is dominant in reasoning and language while the right hemisphere dominant in visual and audio stimuli as well as artistic ability. Be sure to understand the differences between the two hemispheres as well as how they connect in the cortex.
 
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10.3.6 Sign Language   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Sign Language” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Sign Language” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage.
 
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10.4 Sleep and Wakefulness   10.4.1 Brain Changes during Sleep   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Thalamocortical Interactions” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Thalamocortical Interactions” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage.
 
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10.4.2 Stages of Sleep   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Stages of Sleep” and “The Possible Functions of REM Sleep and Dreaming” Links: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Stages of Sleep” (HTML) and “The Possible Functions of REM Sleep and Dreaming” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read both webpages in their entirety, and click on the hyperlinks for the figures.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.4.3 Circadian Rhythm   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “The Circadian Cycle of Sleep and Wakefulness” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “The Circadian Cycle of Sleep and Wakefulness” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage.
 
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10.4.4 Molecular Basis for Biological Clocks   - Reading: NCBI: PubMed – PNAS: Dr. Norio Ishida et al.’s “Biological Clocks” Link: NCBI: PubMed – PNAS: Dr. Norio Ishida et al.’s “Biological Clocks” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire article.
 
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10.4.5 Neural Circuits of Sleep   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Neural Circuits Governing Sleep” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Neural Circuits Governing Sleep” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage, and click on the hyperlinks for the figures.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.4.6 Drugs and Sleep   - Reading: WebMD: “Drug Treatment for Sleep Problems” Link: WebMD: “Drug Treatment for Sleep Problems” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire article.
 
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10.4.7 Narcolepsy and Insomnia   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 28: Sleep Disorders” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 28: Sleep Disorders” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the paragraphs on “Insomnia” and “Narcolepsy.”
 
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10.5 Emotion   10.5.1 Autonomic System and Emotions   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 29: Physiological Changes Associated with Emotion” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 29: Physiological Changes Associated with Emotion” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage.
 
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10.5.2 Limbic System   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 29: The Limbic System” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 29: The Limbic System” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage.
 
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10.5.3 Amygdala and Fear   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 29: The Importance of the Amygdala” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 29: The Importance of the Amygdala” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage.
 
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10.5.4 Affective Disorders   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Box E - Affective Disorders” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Box E - Affective Disorders” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage.
 
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10.6 Memory   10.6.1 Declarative and Nondeclarative Memory   - Reading: The University of Texas’s Neuroscience Online: Dr. John Byrne’s “Ch 7: Learning and Memory” Link: The University of Texas’s Neuroscience Online: Dr. John Byrne’s “Ch 7: Learning and Memory” (HTML and Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage, and then take the quiz at the end of the page.
 
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10.6.2 Immediate, Short-term, and Long-term Memory   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 31: Temporal Categories of Memory” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: “Ch 31: Temporal Categories of Memory” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage.
 
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10.6.3 Consolidation and Association for Long-term Memory   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: Ch 31: “The Long-term Storage of Information” and “The Importance of Association in Information Storage” Links: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience, 2nd Edition: Ch 31: “The Long-term Storage of Information” (HTML) and “The Importance of Association in Information Storage” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read both webpages in their entirety.
 
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10.6.4 Brain Structures Associated with Memory   - Reading: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: “The Brain from Top to Bottom: Short-term Memory” Link: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: “The Brain from Top to Bottom: Short-term Memory (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage, and click on hyperlinks on the webpage.
 
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10.6.5 Forgetting and Amnesia   - Reading: BrainMaps.com: Neurological Disorders: “Amnesia” Link: BrainMaps.com: Neurological Disorders: “Amnesia” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage.
 
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10.6.6 Alzheimer’s Disease   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 10 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 10 Assessment (PDF)

 Instructions: Complete this quiz after working through Unit 10. The
questions are either multiple choice, matching, or labeling
diagrams. You can check your answers with the Saylor Foundation’s
[“Unit 10 Answer
Key](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/BIO303-OC-Unit-10-Quiz-Answer-Key-FINAL.pdf)[”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/BIO303-OC-Unit-10-Quiz-Answer-Key-FINAL.pdf)
(PDF).
  • Lecture: Howard Hughes Medical Institute: Neuroscience Lecture Series -- 2008 Holiday Lectures: “Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory” Link: Howard Hughes Medical Institute: Neuroscience Lecture Series -- 2008 Holiday Lectures: “Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory” (Adobe Flash or RealPlayer)
     
    Instructions: In the 2008 Holiday Lectures section, click on the link to “Lecture 4 – Memories Are Made of This by Eric R. Kandel, M.D.”  Then, on the right margin, click on “31. Aging, memory loss, and Alzheimer disease” and “32. The Alzheimer associated Aβ peptide is toxic to neurons.”
     
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