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BIO303: Neurobiology

Unit 1: Basic Concepts and Introduction   In our first unit of neurobiology, we will review some of the fundamental concepts of chemistry and biology that you will need to know prior to learning new material in this course. This unit will also introduce to you the general anatomy and function of neurobiology, from the individual neurons to global control systems. This introduction is designed to help you keep track of how individual topics you will learn about in this course relate to the larger picture. 

Unit 1 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 6 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 1.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 1.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 1.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.4: 2 hours

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- compare and contrast types of chemical bonds; - know and define the steps of the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology; - identify the basic cell types in the nervous system, and explain the basic cellular structure of neurons; - define “afferent” and “efferent” neurons and the basic steps of a simple reflex circuit; - compare and contrast the Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System; and - identify the five sensory organs of the human body.

1.1 Chemistry Principles   1.1.1 Chemical Bonds (Polar, Covalent, Ionic, etc.)   - Reading: Georgia State University: Hyperphysics’ “Chemical Bonding” Link: Georgia State University: Hyperphysics’ “Chemical Bonding” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on “Chemistry” on the right margin, then click on the bubble for “Chemical Bonding,” and select any bubble for the chemical bond shown on the webpage to read about it. While this course is not a chemistry course, it is important to understand basic chemistry principles, such as chemical bonds and ionic charges, in order to learn neurobiology concepts, such as action potential and neurotransmission.           
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.2 Cations and Anions   - Reading: Online Introductory Chemistry: Dr. Volland’s “Ions and Prediction of Ionic Charges” Link: Online Introductory Chemistry: Dr. Volland’s “Ions and Prediction of Ionic Charges”  (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage linked above.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2 Biology Concepts   1.2.1 Action Potential   - Web Media: YouTube: rhabib’s “Action Potential” Link: YouTube: rhabib’s “Action Potential” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this is introductory video for some background information on action potentials. This concept will be more fully covered in subunit 2.2.
 
This video is 1 minute 30 seconds.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.2 Cell Organelles   - Web Media: YouTube: Hilliard1sm’s “Eukaryotic Cell and Organelle Photostory” Link: YouTube: Hilliard1sm’s “Eukaryotic Cell and Organelle Photostory” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch the video linked above.

 Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.3 Central Dogma of Biology   - Reading: AccessExcellence’s “The Central Dogma of Biology” Link: AccessExcellence’s “The Central Dogma of Biology” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage for information on the four steps of the Central Dogma: Replication of DNA, transcription of DNA to mRNA, processing of mRNA, and translation of mRNA to protein. Make sure to view the image carefully, and click any embedded hyperlinks in the “Legend” section for more information.
 
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  • Web Media: FreeScienceLectures.com’s “DNA Replication Process” and YouTube: redandbrownpaperbag’s “DNA Transcription and Protein Assembly” Links: FreeScienceLectures.com’s “DNA Replication Process” (Flash) and YouTube: redandbrownpaperbag’s “DNA Transcription and Protein Assembly” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch both videos linked above.

    Watching these brief videos should take approximately 6 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.3 Introduction to Nervous System Cells   1.3.1 Neurons   - Reading: How Stuff Works: Dr. Craig Freudenrich and Robynne Boyd’s “How Your Brain Works” Link: How Stuff Works: Dr. Craig Freudenrich and Robynne Boyd’s “How Your Brain Works” (HTML)
  
Instructions: Read sections 1-3 of this webpage for an overview of the science behind how the human brain functions.
 
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1.3.2 Neuroglia Cells   - Reading: The University of Texas’s Neuroscience Online: Jack Waymire’s “Ch 8: Organization of Cell Types” Link: The University of Texas’s Neuroscience Online: Jack Waymire’s “Ch 8: Organization of Cell Types” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage linked above.
 
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1.4 Introduction to Neural Organization   1.4.1 Neural Circuits   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience 2nd Edition: “Ch 1: The Organization of the Nervous System - Neural Circuits” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience 2nd Edition: “Ch 1: The Organization of the Nervous System - Neural Circuits” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage linked above.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.4.2 Central Nervous System (CNS)   - Reading: eMedicine Health: Fernando Dangond’s “Central Nervous System Overview” Link: eMedicine Health: Fernando Dangond’s “Central Nervous System Overview” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the section titled “Anatomy of the Central Nervous System” (pages 1-3 only). You may want to click on any embedded hyperlinks for definitions of terms and concepts.
 
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1.4.3 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)   Note: This unit is covered by the reading for 1.4.2.

1.4.4 Effectors and Stimuli   - Reading: PMR Science: Zhi Yan’s “Sensory Organs and Their Functions” Link: PMR Science: Zhi Yan’s “Sensory Organs and Their Functions” (HTML)
 
Also available in:

[PDF](http://pmr-science.wikispaces.com/page/pdf/1.1+Sensory+Organs+and+Their+Functions)  
    
 Instructions: Read the entire webpage linked above.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.4.5 Neuroanatomical Terminology   - Reading: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’ Neuroscience 2nd Edition: “Ch 1: Some Anatomical Terminology” Link: NCBI Bookshelf’s version of Sinauer Associates, Inc., Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, et al., editors’Neuroscience 2nd Edition: “Ch 1: Some Anatomical Terminology” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage, and explore the hyperlinks to Figure 1.9. Which way is up? Simple as this question might seem, you can get different answers if you are upside down or upright. To eliminate ambiguity in phrasing, biologists have developed specialized terms (i.e. superior and anterior) to help you accurately define the location of body parts in relation to one another. It is very important that you know these terms so that you will be able to trace paths or learning positions more easily.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: PBS: “The Secret Life of the Brain: 3-D Brain Anatomy” Link: PBS: “The Secret Life of the Brain: 3-D Brain Anatomy” (Adobe Shockwave)
     
    Instructions: Follow the instructions on the webpage to view the neuroanatomy of the brain.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
     
    Note: Which way is up? Simple as this question might seem, you can get different answers if you are upside down or upright. To eliminate ambiguity in phrasing, biologists have developed specialized terms (i.e. superior and anterior) to help you accurately define the location of body parts in relation to one another. It is very important that you know these terms so that you will be able to trace paths or learning positions more easily.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 1 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 1 Assessment” (PDF)

    Instructions: Complete this quiz after working through Unit 1. The questions are multiple choice, matching, or labeling diagrams. You can check your answers with The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 1 Assessment Answer Key” (PDF).