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BIO301: Cell Biology

Unit 10: Cellular Transport   Just as your body has a circulatory system that moves nutrients and waste, every cell in your body has a vast network system that carries things from one place to another. In unit 5, you learned about the units that make up this transport network. You will now learn about the signals and roadmaps that direct traffic in that network. Though there are many different types of transport, the most important ones export gene products from the nucleus to their destined locations. As you will see, the gene products themselves include specific sequences that define their destination.

You will also learn that cells have the ability to secrete or intake vesicles (membrane-enclosed spaces), which also require specific transport mechanisms. This unit will go over a few of the major mechanisms.

Unit 10 Time Advisory
Completing this unit will take you approximately 16 hours.

☐    Subunit 10.1: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 10.2: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 10.3: 3 hour

☐    Subunit 10.4: 6 hours

☐    Assessment: 1 hour

Unit10 Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this unit, you will be able to - understand the roles of various organelles and molecules in cellular transport; - understand the roles of receptors in cellular transport; and - answer questions about vesicular transport and the specific functions of different types of vesicles.

10.1 Nuclear Transport   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “The Nuclear Envelope and the Traffic between the Nucleus and the Cytoplasm” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: The Nuclear Envelope and the Traffic between the Nucleus and the Cytoplasm (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the subsection “Selective Transport of Proteins to and from the Nucleus,” along with all associated figures (Figs. 8.8–8.11). This will cover the topics in subunits 10.1.1–10.1.3.

 Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour
and 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

10.1.1 Nuclear Import   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 10.1. Focus on the subsections “Selective Transport of Proteins to and from the Nucleus” and “Regulation of Nuclear Protein Import.”

10.1.2 Nuclear Export   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 10.1.Focus on figure 8.11.

10.1.3 Ran GTPases (Guanosine Triphosphate)   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 10.1. Focus on the subsection “Selective Transport of Proteins to and from the Nucleus.”

10.2 Co-translational Targeting in the Nucleus   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “The Endoplasmic Reticulum” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: The Endoplasmic Reticulum (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the introduction and the subsections “The Endoplasmic Reticulum and Protein Secretion,” “Targeting Proteins to the Endoplasmic Reticulum,” and “Protein Folding and Processing in the ER,” along with all associated figures (Figs. 9.2-9.4, 9.6–9.8 and 9.14–9.16). This will cover the topics outlined in subunits10.2.1–10.2.4.

 Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 2
hours and 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

10.2.1 Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) and SRP Receptor   This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 10.2. Focus on the “Targeting Proteins to the Endoplasmic Reticulum” section and Figure 9.7.

10.2.2 Translocation   This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 10.2. Focus on the “Targeting Proteins to the Endoplasmic Reticulum” section.

10.2.3 N-Linked Glycosylation   This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 10.2. Focus on the “Protein Folding and Processing in the ER” section.

10.2.4 Rough ER Processing   This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 10.2. Focus on the “Protein Folding and Processing in the ER” section.

10.3 Post-translational Targeting to Organelles   10.3.1 Transport to Mitochondria   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Mitochondria” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: Mitochondria (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the subsection “Protein Import and Mitochondrial Assembly,” along with all associated figures (Figs. 10.4–10.7).

 Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour
and 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

10.3.2 Transport to Chloroplasts   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Chloroplasts and Other Plastids” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: Chloroplasts and Other Plastids (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the subsection “Import and Sorting of Chloroplast Proteins,” along with all associated figures (Figs. 10.15–10.16).

 Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour
and 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

10.4 Vesicular Transport   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “The Mechanism of Vesicular Transport” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: The Mechanism of Vesicular Transport (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this section. Note that this reading will cover the concepts outlined in subunits 10.4.1–10.4.3. The following five categories of vesicular transport listed in subunits 10.4.1–10.4.5 can be very complex, but, for our purposes, you will only need to understand the basics: the overall structure of molecules in each class, how the molecules aid in vesicle formation/dissociation, and how the transport signal is conducted.

 Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 2
hours.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: University of California, Berkeley: Professor Randy Schekman’s “Membrane Vesicular Transport” Link: University of California, Berkeley: Professor Randy Schekman’s Membrane Vesicular Transport (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    iTunes U
     
    Instructions: Watch this lecture. Note this lectures covers the topics outlined in subunits 10.4.1–10.4.3.

    Watching this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Works 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to the University of California, Berkeley and the original version can be found here.

10.4.1 COP I (Coat Complex)and COP II Coated Vesicles   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 10.4. Focus on the “Coat Proteins and Vesicle Budding” section of the reading.

10.4.2 Clathrin Family   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 10.4. Focus on the “Coat Proteins and Vesicle Budding” section of the reading.

10.4.3 SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptor) Proteins   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 10.4. Focus on the “Vesicle Fusion” section of the reading.

10.4.4 Dynamin Family   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Endocytosis” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: Endocytosis (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the subsection “Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis” along with all associated figures (Figs. 12.36–12.39). This will cover the topics outlined in subunits 10.4.4 and 10.4.5.

 Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 2
hours.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

10.4.5 Caveolin Family   This subunit is covered by the reading and assigned beneath subunit 10.4.4. Focus on the subsection “Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis.”

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 10 Quiz” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s Unit 10 Quiz” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please complete the linked quiz to test your knowledge of the material covered in Unit 10.

    Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour.