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BIO301: Cell Biology

Unit 9: The Cell Cycle   Both meiosis and mitosis represent one phase of the cell cycle, which is an ordered set of events that a cell undergoes in preparation for division. The cell cycle we talk about usually refers to the mitotic cell cycle, but there is also a meiotic cell cycle. The cell cycle consists of several distinct phases, such as doubling of the genome, growing in size, etc. In addition, the cell cycle has many restriction points that act like roadblocks, preventing the cell from dividing before it is ready to do so.These restriction points ensure the integrity of the cell. Any mutation that results in cell division without the control of the checkpoints will likely result in cancer.

Unit 9 Time Advisory
Completing this unit will take you approximately 11 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 9.1–9.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 9.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 9.4: 4 hours 

☐    Assessment: 2 hour

Unit9 Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this unit, you will be able to - describe what cellular events (or lack of events) occur during each phase of the cell cycle; - identify in what phase of the cycle specific types of cells are found; - describe the roles of cyclin and CDKs in regulating the cell cycle; and - describe the cyclin/CDK pathway and what molecules/intracellular events are involved in different aspects of cell-cycle regulation.

9.1 General Phases of Cell Cycle   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the introduction and the subsections “Phases of the Cell Cycle”, “Regulation of the Cell Cycle by Cell Growth and Extracellular Signals”, and Cell Cycle Checkpoints,” along with all associated figures (Figs. 14.1, 14.2, 14.4 –14.9). These will cover the topics outlined in subunits 9.1 and 9.3.

 Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour
and 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Lecture: University of California, Berkeley: Professor Kunxin Luo’s “The Cell Cycle I” Link: University of California, Berkeley: Professor Kunxin Luo’s The Cell Cycle I (YouTube)
     
    Also available in:
    Tunes U
     
    Instructions: Watch this lecture. This resource covers the topics outlined in subunits 9.1–9.3, and it begins to touch on the topic of subunit 9.4.

    Watching this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Works 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to the University of California, Berkeley and the original version can be found here.

9.1.2 S Phase   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 9.1. Focus on the subsection “Phases of the Cell Cycle.”

9.1.3 G2 Phase   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 9.1. Focus on the subsection “Phases of the Cell Cycle.”

9.1.4 Mitosis   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 9.1. Focus on the subsection “Phases of the Cell Cycle.”

9.1.5 Interphase   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 9.1. Focus on the “Phases of the Cell Cycle” section of the reading.

9.1.6 G0 Phase   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 9.1. Focus on the “Regulation of the Cell Cycle by Cell Growth and Extracellular Signals” section of the reading and figure 14.6.

9.2 Meiosis in the Cell Cycle   This subunit is covered by the video assigned beneath subunit 9.1.

9.3 Checkpoints of Cell Cycle   - Lecture: University of California, Berkeley: Professor Kunxin Luo’s “Checkpoints” Link: University of California, Berkeley: Professor Kunxin Luo’s Checkpoints (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
iTunes U
 
Instructions: Watch this lecture. Note that this video discusses concepts outlined in subunits 9.3.1–9.3.3

 Watching this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 2
hours.  
    
 Terms of Use: This resource is released under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Works 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). It is
attributed to the University of California, Berkeley and the
original version can be found [here](http://webcast.berkeley.edu/).

9.3.1 G1 Restriction Point   This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 9.1 and the video assigned beneath subunit 9.3. Focus on the “Regulation of the Cell Cycle by Cell Growth and Extracellular Signals” section of the reading.

9.3.2 S Phase Restriction Point   This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 9.1 and the video assigned beneath subunit 9.3. Focus on the “Regulation of the Cell Cycle by Cell Growth and Extracellular Signals” section of the reading.

9.3.3 G2 Restriction Point   This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 9.1 and the video assigned beneath subunit 9.3. Focus on the “Regulation of the Cell Cycle by Cell Growth and Extracellular Signals” section of the reading.

9.4 Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKs)   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Regulators of Cell Cycle Progression” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: Regulators of Cell Cycle Progression (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the introduction and the subsection “Families of Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases,” along with all associated figures (Figs. 14.17 and 14.18). This will cover the topics outlined in 9.4.1–9.4.4.

 Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 2
hours.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Lecture: University of California, Berkeley: Professor Kunxin Luo’s “The Cell Cycle II” Link: University of California, Berkeley: Professor Kunxin Luo’s The Cell Cycle II (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    iTunes U

    Instructions: Watch this lecture. Note that the concepts discussed in this lecture will cover the topics outlined in inclusive subunits 9.4.1–9.4.4.

    Watching this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Works 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to the University of California, Berkeley and the original version can be found here.

9.4.1 General Features of Cyclin and CDK   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 9.4. Focus on the subsections “MPF: A Dimer of Cdc2 and Cyclin” and “Families of Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases.”

9.4.2 Positive Regulators of CDK and Cyclin Pairs   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 9.4. Focus on the subsection “Growth Factors and the D-Type Cyclins.”

9.4.3 Negative Regulators of CDK and Cyclin Pairs   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 9.4. Focus on the subsection “Inhibitors of Cell Cycle Progression.”

9.4.4 Cyclin Degradation   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath subunit 9.4. Focus on the subsection “MPF: A Dimer of Cdc2 and Cyclin” and associated figure (Figure 14.14). Cyclin degradation is crucial to moving forward with the cell cycle. Without degradation, there would be too many active CDKs, and the resulting mix would greatly confuse a cell in terms of whether it should proceed or stop. Specific cancers mutate certain CDKs and push the cell to constantly divide.

  • Assessment: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Questions – The Cell Cycle” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: Questions – The Cell Cycle (HTML)

    Instructions: Answer questions 2–6. Please note that answers are posted directly below each question; try to cover them while you answer the questions yourself.

    Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 9 Quiz” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s Unit 9 Quiz” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please complete the linked quiz to test your knowledge of the material covered in Unit 9.

    Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour.