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BIO301: Cell Biology

Unit 8: Meiosis   Meiosis, the other form of cell division, is the process by which one cell becomes four genetically unique cells. This process is essential to reproduction and the creation of unique offspring, which ultimately adds diversity to life. Meiosis is the reason you look similar to (but not exactly like) your parents. As in mitosis, meiosis is composed of four phases. However, meiosis takes place in two stages, meiosis I and II. Most importantly, there is period of genetic recombination in meiosis during which the maternal and paternal DNA mix and result in the development of unique genomes. You should also note that, unlike mitosis, meiosis results in haploid cells and only takes place in two types of cells: sperm and oocyte cells.

Unit 8 Time Advisory
Completing this unit will take you approximately 7.5 hours.

☐    Subunit 8.1–8.3: 5.5 hours

☐    Subunit 8.4: 1 hour

☐    Assessment: 1 hour

Unit8 Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this unit, you will be able to - identify what major cellular events occur at each phase of the meiotic cell cycle; - distinguish between mitosis and meiosis in terms of both specific cellular events and the types of cells resulting from the process; and - describe the differences between oocyte formation and sperm formation.

  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Meiosis and Fertilization” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Professor Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: Meiosis and Fertilization (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the introduction and the subsection “Process of Meiosis,” along with all associated figures (Figs. 14.32, 14.34, and 14.36). This will cover the topics outlined in subunits 8.1–8.3.

    Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 3 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: University of California, Berkeley: Professor David G. Drubin’s “Meiosis” Link: University of California, Berkeley: Professor David G. Drubin’s Meiosis (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    iTunes U

    Instructions: Watch this lecture, which covers the topics outlined in subunits 8.1–8.3.

    Watching this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Works 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to the University of California, Berkeley and the original version can be found here.

8.1 Meiotic Prophase   - Web Media: The Saylor Foundation’s “Figure 8.1” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s Figure 8.1 (PNG)
 
Instructions: Please open The Saylor Foundation’s Figure 8.1. Note this subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath unit 8.

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.   

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.1.1 Leptotene   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath the Unit 8 introduction. Focus on the subsection “The Process of Meiosis.” 

8.1.2 Zygotene   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath the Unit 8 introduction. Focus on the subsection “The Process of Meiosis.”

8.1.3 Pachytene and Chiasma   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath the unit 8 introduction. Chiasma is the point at which the Holliday Junction appears and genetic information is exchanged between the chromosomes. Chiasma is the defining characteristic of the pachytene stage, and is also called the chiasmata. Focus on the subsection “The Process of Meiosis.” 

8.1.4 Diplotene   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath the unit 8 introduction. Focus on the subsection “The Process of Meiosis.”

8.1.5 Diakinesis   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath the unit 8 introduction. Focus on the subsection “The Process of Meiosis.”

8.2 Meiosis I   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath the unit 8 introduction. Focus on the subsection “The Process of Meiosis.”

8.2.2 Anaphase I   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath the unit 8 introduction. Focus on the subsection “The Process of Meiosis.”

8.3 Meiosis II   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath the unit 8 introduction. Focus on the last paragraph of the reading.

8.3.1 Metaphase II   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath the unit 8 introduction. Focus on the last paragraph of the reading.

8.3.2 Metaphase II Arrest in Humans   This subunit is covered by the reading beneath the unit 8 introduction. Focus on the “Regulation of oocyte meiosis” section.

8.3.3 Anaphase II   This subunit is covered by the reading and video assigned beneath the unit 8 introduction. Focus on the last paragraph of the reading.

8.4 Sperm and Oocyte Difference in Meiosis   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 8 Quiz” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 8 Quiz” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please complete the linked quiz to test your knowledge of the material covered in Unit 8.

 Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour.
  • Reading: Contexo’s “Meiosis” Link: Contexo’s Meiosis (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the subsection “Differences between Sperm and Egg Formation.”

    Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: University of Arizona’s Biology Project: “Cell Biology” Link: University of Arizona’s Biology Project: Cell Biology (HTML)

    Instructions: In the “Meiosis” tutorial, under “Test Yourself (10 questions)”, answer questions 1–10.

    Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.