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BIO102: Introduction to Evolutionary Biology and Ecology

Unit 4: Evolution of Populations   This unit expands upon our understanding of evolution by looking beyond natural selection.  Although natural selection is one way that populations evolve, there are other ways that a population of species can change over time.  We will now look at the major concepts behind these types of change.  We will first introduce the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, where the variation within a population does not change from generation to generation, given five basic assumptions about the population.  We will then look at these assumptions in detail and examine how they change the genetic pool of a population when violated.

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 5.25 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 4.2: 0.75 hours

☐    Subunit 4.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 4.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 4.5: 1 hour

☐    Assessment: 0.5 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Understand the meaning and purpose of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, as well as what different values would mean for a population. - Identify the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. - Demonstrate an understanding of situations in which violations of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium occur.

4.1 Genetic Variation within a Population   - Lecture: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior: “How Selection Changes the Genetic Composition of a Population” Link: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior“How Selection Changes the Genetic Composition of a Population” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  

[MP4](http://www.archive.org/details/HowSelectionChangesTheGeneticCompositionOfAPopulation)  

[MP3](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-5)  
 [iTunes U
Audio](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02413658061.2558361141?i=1319419578)  
 [iTunes U
Video](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02471197475.2687076435?i=1840744488)  

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch the lecture.
 This lecture covers the material in subunits 4.1 and 4.2.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/).  It
is attributed to Stephen C. Stearns and Yale University's [Open Yale
Courses](http://oyc.yale.edu/).  The original version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-5).

4.2 Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) Equilibrium and Equation   - Reading: Dr. Michael J. Farabee’s Online Biology Book: “Chapter 38: The Modern View of Evolution” and John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium” Link: Dr. Michael J. Farabee’s Online Biology Book“Chapter 38: The Modern View of Evolution” (HTML) and John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium” (HTML)

 Instructions: Click on the first link to read the section titled
“The Hardy-Weinberg Law.” In Kimball’s *Biology Pages*, read the
introductory portion of this webpage until you reach the section
titled “When the Hardy-Weinberg Law Fails to Apply.” This section
covers the material in Subunit 4.2 and Subunit 4.3.  

 Reading these sections and taking notes should take approximately
30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: The "Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium" reading has been
reposted by the kind permission of Professor John Kimball and can be
viewed in its original form
[here](http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/H/Hardy_Weinberg.html).
Note that this material is under copyright and may not be reproduced
in any capacity without the explicit permission of the copyright
holder.

4.3 Five Assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg: No Selection, No Mutation, No Migration, No Chance Event/Genetic Drift and Random Mating   - Lecture: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior: “The Origin and Maintenance of Genetic Variation” Link: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior“The Origin and Maintenance of Genetic Variation” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  

[MP4](http://www.archive.org/details/TheOriginAndMaintenanceOfGeneticVariation)  

[MP3](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-6)  
 [iTunes U
Video](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02471197475.2681872054?i=1346073275)  
 [iTunes U
Audio](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02413658061.2584019322?i=1309930443)  

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch the
lecture.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/).  It
is attributed to Stephen C. Stearns and Yale University's [Open Yale
Courses](http://oyc.yale.edu/).  The original version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-6).

4.4 Mutation, Migration, and Non-Random Mating   - Reading: John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium” Link: John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and scroll down to
read the section titled “When the Hardy-Weinberg Law Fails to Apply”
and its subsections.  In the subsection on genetic drift, follow the
links for examples of genetic drift, the founder effect, and
population bottlenecks.  These readings will cover the material in
subunits 4.4 – 4.5.  

 Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages.  This reading has been reposted by the
kind permission of Professor John Kimball and can be viewed in its
original
form [here](http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/H/Hardy_Weinberg.html). 
Please note that this material is under copyright and may not be
reproduced in any capacity without the explicit permission of the
copyright holder.

4.5 Genetic Drift, Bottleneck, and Founder   - Lecture: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior: “Neutral Evolution: Genetic Drift” Link: Yale University: Professor Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology and Behavior“Neutral Evolution: Genetic Drift” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  
 [MP4](http://www.archive.org/details/NeutralEvolutionGeneticDrift)  

[MP3](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-4)  
 [iTunes U
Audio](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02413658061.2583724638?i=1479487546)  
 [iTunes U
Video](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02471197475.2671918835?i=1632670250)  

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch the
lecture.   

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/).  It
is attributed to Stephen C. Stearns and Yale University's [Open Yale
Courses](http://oyc.yale.edu/).  The original version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-4).

Unit 4 Review and Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 4 Review” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 4 Review” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and work through the
questions. When you are finished, check your work against The Saylor
Foundation’s [“Unit 4 Review Answer
Key”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/BIO102_Unit_4_Review_ANSWER_KEY-FINAL.pdf)
(PDF).  

 Completing this assessment should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 License. It is attributed to The Saylor Foundation.
  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 4 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 4 Assessment” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please complete the linked assessment.
     
    You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this quiz.  If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.